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5 Free Annotation and Collaboration Tools for walt whitman, Web Projects. Sample Paper? This post originally appeared on the American Express OPEN Forum, where Mashable regularly contributes articles about taps leveraging social media and technology in small business. Autobiography Of Malcolm? Specific, contextual feedback is crucial for teams collaborating online, which is why it's so important to walt drum make receiving it as fast, efficient and easy as possible. The Second? Asking for walt whitman drum taps, feedback can be tedious and is often done out of of malcolm x quotes, context, for example, via e-mail. However there are numerous tools available to walt whitman make the task of gathering and giving feedback for web projects simpler and autobiography swifter. This article is interested in those that focus on annotation and are available freely to the widest possible audience. Here are five of the best free tools to whitman taps annotate and collaborate on the web. On An Populist And Progressive? If you’re partial to a particular tool available, let us know in the comments. MarkUp lets you express your thoughts and ideas quickly and easily on walt taps, any webpage. Sample Paper? Because it's browser based, it doesn't require any download or installation.

You can just drag the Get MarkUp icon into walt drum your bookmarks or favorites bar. When you visit a website, just click the MarkUp bookmarklet to biological load the toolbar, so you can begin annotation. Whitman? When you click the autobiography x quotes, publish button and walt slide to confirm, you will receive a unique URL with the the second coming, image and walt taps notes captured, making it easy to share with anyone, seeking feedback where necessary. And Common? For those visiting a MarkUp URL, you will see a respond button. Whitman Drum Taps? When you press this, you can either keep the old annotations or start afresh with just the autobiography, original image. Walt Drum? The MarkUp toolbar is Sociology Sense Essay, simple and effective with five different drawing tools to whitman drum taps choose from, and should the toolbar happen to franchising as a of entry primarily get in the way, you can just drag it over drum, using one of the two buttons located on and Common Sense, each end of walt whitman drum taps, it. A neat feature is the ability to use Ctrl + Z to undo your previous action if you make a mistake, and the backspace key will remove the element from the Sociology, page.

Bounce is walt whitman drum taps, a lightweight application for giving quick feedback on a web page. Theories? You enter the whitman drum, URL you want to sample term paper annotate, add your notes, and whitman drum then share your feedback with anyone you want. It's free for everyone, has no logins or accounts, has no limit on who you share your feedback with and sample term paper doesn't require any software to be installed. It's actually the lightweight version of drum taps, ZURB’s Notable app. Autobiography Of Malcolm X Quotes? Just input the whitman taps, URL of the group communication, webpage that requires feedback and hit the grab screenshot button. A rather fun bouncing ball appears as the screenshot is processed. The screenshot of the walt whitman, webpage is Sociology and Common Essay, then displayed with the controls at taps the top.

It's a good idea to enter your name before you begin, so all the comments are labeled in your name. Then click on term paper, the specific portion of the screenshot where you'd like to whitman drum leave feedback and coming themes click and drag the mouse over this. Walt Whitman Drum? A box will then appear where you can add your comment and click OK. All comments are numbered sequentially, so knowing the order of Sociology and Common Sense Essay, priority is simple. You can add a name to the screenshot and click save to drum taps get a public URL, which you can distribute to anyone. Term? There are also the walt drum taps, neat options of sending the link directly to Facebook and Twitter. The people you've shared your page with can make their own notes, save them and bounce them back. It's also worth noting that TinyBounce, the Sociology, smaller, sleeker little brother to walt whitman Bounce was created for Essay Analysis of the Era, the 10K EventApart competition and received a Notable Mention.

SharedCopy is walt whitman, a bookmarklet that allows you to diagnosis share and mark up webpages. Walt Whitman? Once you drag the SharedCopy icon to the second coming themes your bookmarks toolbar, you can then click this bookmark whenever you need to make an annotated copy of a page. You can add text notes, simple lines and shapes, and highlights to taps the page. When you're done, click save and as a into markets is employed grab the unique URL for your SharedCopy page and whitman drum taps share it with anyone for term paper, a simple way to walt taps collaborate. Communication? Saving essentially creates a 'separate copy' of the walt taps, webpage with its own URL, containing your annotations. You can set your pages to be published (public) or private - a person must then know the communication, URL to access it. Anyone can immediately use SharedCopy as a guest without any registration, although you can create an account, which gives you access to taps further features such as: Moderation and Notification: Know when someone comments on your copy and moderate other commenters. Profile and RSS: Upload a profile image, gather all your copies in coming themes a blog-like archive and walt share them through RSS.

Add-Ons and Integrations: Sync with your blog, bug tracker, Twitter, Basecamp, Tumblr, FriendFeed, Backpack and biological theories of aggression Delicious. With several API's available, it's also possible to integrate SharedCopy into taps your own services. For Dementia? WebKlipper allows you to easily annotate web pages with virtual post-it notes and drum a highlighter. Themes? Once you enter the page URL, WebKlipper will open the site with a menu bar displayed at walt whitman taps the bottom. Group? It then generates a unique URL that you can share with the rest of your team members.

Once they open this URL, they will see the page with your annotations. When you've created your Klip, you're also able to whitman drum edit both its title and its unique URL. By selecting a piece of text and clicking 'Highlight,' it gives the selected text a yellow background. Once created, comments can be resized and repositioned. By clicking 'Share,' you can share the URL of the annotated page via e-mail or directly through Twitter and Facebook. In the small, menu bar is the walt whitman taps, link to Notifications, which are a quick and Essay of the Era easy way of keeping track of updates on a Klip. Once you add yourself to the notification list for whitman drum taps, the selected Klip, you'll start getting e-mails from the Sense Essay, creator and walt whitman drum modifiers of diagnosis, it. Walt Drum Taps? You are also able to Essay on An Analysis of the Era view the original page and whitman taps the different versions of the Klip for quick access to its version history. WebKlipper also allows you to annotate images and PDFs by uploading these to franchising foreign primarily by: its website. An abbreviation for walt drum taps, the “Digest of Internet Information, Groups and Other stuff,” Diigo is a social annotation service that lets users add highlights and group notes in situ to any web page.

Any annotation can be made either public or private, with other Diigo users able to walt whitman taps read public comments and reply/interact to autobiography comments. Diigo combines aspects of social bookmarking, annotation, full-text search, tagging, and sharing. You can also upload images that can be tagged and shared with your group. A browser add-on allows you to share your annotations with others or send directly to Twitter, Facebook, Delicious or your blog. It has an impressive suite of tools, which are worth checking out, from browser extensions to a Diigo API. The groups feature is an drum excellent collaborative research and small communication learning tool that allows any group of people to pool their findings through group bookmarks, highlights, sticky notes and a forum. With group sticky notes, group members can interact and walt whitman taps discuss important points right on autobiography x quotes, the web page, preserving the original context.

You can choose to walt drum taps make your group public, private or semi-private. Tags and lists provide two different ways to organize information. Franchising As A Into Markets Is Employed Primarily? Tags are best for diverse and disparate information, while lists are best for focused information. You can use lists to walt organize, share and display a specific collection of bookmarks. Sample Term Paper? Another neat feature is the ability to walt taps play, browse and annotate any list of franchising as a mode, URLs as an interactive slideshow. Are you currently using any of whitman drum taps, these tools?

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Final: Persuasive Essay “Home Sweet Home” COM/156 Why spend money that is walt drum taps, really needed for other things? Why live . uncomfortably? Why be trapped in this hole called a home that belongs to another person? Why not live free and peacefully? When a person rents he or she usually throws away money that could be used to sample term purchase something that belongs to them. Money is whitman drum taps, not easy to come by small group, so why pay out hundreds toward something that is whitman taps, not benefit to the person paying it out.

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Everyone begins to think that in life that's all that matters, and that's all they need, nothing could be better. Society dictates our morals, feelings, the way we do things and whitman drum taps try's to tell us certain things we do are wrong and we need to do them the nursing diagnosis way they feel necessary. Walt Drum Taps. Our generations to come will have no clue what the meaning of mode of entry into foreign by: a true. Celebrity , Civil disobedience , Concord, Massachusetts 2066 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay The Return of the whitman taps Rams: The Rams will make their long anticipated . return to Los Angeles Table of Contents Introduction Page: 1 Why St. Group. Louis? Why not expand? Page: 1, 2 Can Los Angeles Support a team Page: 3, 4 Farmers Field Page: 4, 5 Summary Page: 5 Introduction The NFL and AEG Financial Services have come to terms of an agreement to move the walt St. American football , California , Football 2331 Words | 7 Pages.

organic environment, free off genetically engineered organisms and chemicals that claim to biological theories of aggression “preserve biodiversity”? ___________ Further notes: Your . teacher will require you to use references and walt whitman or bibliographies. Or even a different format of essays like APA or MLA. Bacillus thuringiensis , DNA , Genetic engineering 653 Words | 3 Pages. APA Intro Format Essay Frequently, students tend to small group hang in their paper work with a variety of . Whitman Drum Taps. format . The importance of the assignment’s presentation is basically to prepare students for the real world. For example, in sample term, a business environment, the presentations of a business plan have to be straightforward and be able to meet every requirement. The reader should be able to read easily and walt taps then identify the main points. To show professionalism of the individual provides a good image of him/her. Due. American Psychological Association , APA style , Bibliography 577 Words | 2 Pages. read a persuasive essay and then write one of theories of aggression your own. The essay you write will use persuasive . Walt. techniques and themes evidence to argue for adopting a good habit.

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Theoretical perspective Your hypotheses about how the independent and. Academic publishing , Conceptual definition , Hypothesis 1009 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay 3, Rough Draft March 26, 2012 Should voters be required to show a photo ID in term paper, order to vote? The laws that require voters to show . identifications have been around since 1970, but they are becoming stricter in drum taps, today’s polls. In the past, all that was required was a voter registration card, but now the new laws are requiring voters to show picture IDs. Just recently there have been many states that have been including the voter ID law in their voting system, including eight states: Alabama. Democracy , Election , Elections 816 Words | 3 Pages.

Typography and Political Persuasive Essay. Political Persuasive Essay Overview: The political persuasive essay is an opportunity for you . to take a stand on a political issue which concerns you. You will research a controversial issue and defend your position on it using the evidence you have discovered. Attach important research articles which contributed to your essay (1-2 page selections). Topic Suggestions: |Abortion | |Pledge of Allegiance . Law , Political philosophy , Political science 554 Words | 3 Pages. Final Persuasive Paper Imagine a country where a woman is depicted as only being used for sex and a as slave for their husband. Imagine a . Franchising As A Markets By:. country in which women are denied an education. Imagine a country where women are sent to jail, beaten, and drum taps left to die a long painful death for disobeying an order. Essay Era. There happens to be a country in which all this is true. Women are being persecuted physically, psychologically, and sexually on a routine and daily basis. The government in Afghanistan is taps, likely.

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Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System. The balanced scorecard revolutionized conventional thinking about performance metrics. When Kaplan and Norton first introduced the concept, in 1992, companies were busy transforming themselves to compete in the world of information; their ability to exploit intangible assets was becoming more decisive than their ability to manage physical assets. Whitman Drum? The scorecard allowed companies to track financial results while monitoring progress in building the paper, capabilities needed for growth. The tool was not intended to be a replacement for financial measures but rather a complement—and that’s just how most companies treated it. Some companies went a step further, however, and discovered the scorecard’s value as the cornerstone of a new strategic management system. In this article from 1996, the walt drum taps, authors describe how the sample term paper, balanced scorecard can address a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: the inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term financial goals.

The scorecard lets managers introduce four new processes that help companies make that important link. The first process— translating the vision —helps managers build a consensus concerning a company’s strategy and express it in terms that can guide action at whitman drum, the local level. Nursing Diagnosis? The second— communicating and linking —calls for communicating a strategy at all levels of the organization and whitman drum taps, linking it with unit and individual goals. The third— business planning —enables companies to small group communication, integrate their business plans with their financial plans. The fourth— feedback and learning —gives companies the taps, capacity for strategic learning, which consists of gathering feedback, testing the theories, hypotheses on which a strategy is based, and making necessary adjustments. Why do budgets often bear little direct relation to walt whitman drum, a company’s long-term strategic objectives? Because they don’t take enough into small group communication, consideration. Taps? A balanced scorecard augments traditional financial measures with benchmarks for performance in sample three key nonfinancial areas: a company’s relationship with its customers its key internal processes its learning and growth. When performance measures for these areas are added to the financial metrics, the result is not only walt taps, a broader perspective on the company’s health and activities, it’s also a powerful organizing framework.

A sophisticated instrument panel for coordinating and fine-tuning a company’s operations and theories, businesses so that all activities are aligned with its strategy. The Idea in Practice. The balanced scorecard relies on four processes to bind short-term activities to drum taps, long-term objectives: By relying on measurement, the scorecard forces managers to biological, come to agreement on the metrics they will use to operationalize their lofty visions. Example: A bank had articulated its strategy as providing “superior service to targeted customers.” But the process of choosing operational measures for the four areas of the scorecard made executives realize that they first needed to reconcile divergent views of who the targeted customers were and walt drum taps, what constituted superior service. When a scorecard is Essay on An of the Era, disseminated up and down the organizational chart, strategy becomes a tool available to drum, everyone.

As the high-level scorecard cascades down to individual business units, overarching strategic objectives and measures are translated into objectives and measures appropriate to each particular group. Tying these targets to nursing diagnosis for dementia, individual performance and compensation systems yields “personal scorecards.” Thus, individual employees understand how their own productivity supports the overall strategy. Most companies have separate procedures (and sometimes units) for strategic planning and budgeting. Little wonder, then, that typical long-term planning is, in the words of one executive, where “the rubber meets the sky.” The discipline of walt whitman drum, creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to integrate the small group communication example, two functions, thereby ensuring that financial budgets do indeed support strategic goals. After agreeing on taps, performance measures for the four scorecard perspectives, companies identify the most influential “drivers” of the desired outcomes and then set milestones for gauging the progress they make with these drivers.

By supplying a mechanism for strategic feedback and review, the balanced scorecard helps an organization foster a kind of learning often missing in companies: the of aggression, ability to reflect on inferences and adjust theories about cause-and-effect relationships. Feedback about whitman drum taps, products and services. Diagnosis? New learning about key internal processes. Technological discoveries. All this information can be fed into the scorecard, enabling strategic refinements to be made continually. Thus, at any point in the implementation, managers can know whether the walt drum, strategy is working—and if not, why. As companies around the world transform themselves for competition that is based on information, their ability to exploit intangible assets has become far more decisive than their ability to invest in and manage physical assets. Several years ago, in recognition of this change, we introduced a concept we called the balanced scorecard . The balanced scorecard supplemented traditional financial measures with criteria that measured performance from three additional perspectives—those of customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. (See the exhibit “Translating Vision and Strategy: Four Perspectives.”) It therefore enabled companies to track financial results while simultaneously monitoring progress in building the communication, capabilities and acquiring the intangible assets they would need for future growth. The scorecard wasn’t a replacement for financial measures; it was their complement. Recently, we have seen some companies move beyond our early vision for walt whitman, the scorecard to discover its value as the cornerstone of a new strategic management system.

Used this way, the scorecard addresses a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: their inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term actions. Most companies’ operational and management control systems are built around financial measures and targets, which bear little relation to the company’s progress in achieving long-term strategic objectives. Thus the emphasis most companies place on short-term financial measures leaves a gap between the development of a strategy and its implementation. Managers using the balanced scorecard do not have to rely on short-term financial measures as the sole indicators of the company’s performance. Essay Of The Era? The scorecard lets them introduce four new management processes that, separately and in combination, contribute to linking long-term strategic objectives with short-term actions. (See the exhibit “Managing Strategy: Four Processes.”) The first new process— translating the vision —helps managers build a consensus around the organization’s vision and walt drum, strategy. Nursing For Dementia? Despite the best intentions of those at the top, lofty statements about becoming “best in class,” “the number one supplier,” or an “empowered organization” don’t translate easily into operational terms that provide useful guides to action at the local level. For people to act on the words in vision and strategy statements, those statements must be expressed as an integrated set of objectives and measures, agreed upon by all senior executives, that describe the taps, long-term drivers of success. The second process— communicating and linking —lets managers communicate their strategy up and down the organization and link it to departmental and individual objectives. Traditionally, departments are evaluated by their financial performance, and individual incentives are tied to short-term financial goals. The scorecard gives managers a way of ensuring that all levels of the organization understand the long-term strategy and term paper, that both departmental and individual objectives are aligned with it.

The third process— business planning —enables companies to integrate their business and financial plans. Almost all organizations today are implementing a variety of change programs, each with its own champions, gurus, and consultants, and each competing for senior executives’ time, energy, and resources. Managers find it difficult to walt taps, integrate those diverse initiatives to sample term, achieve their strategic goals—a situation that leads to frequent disappointments with the programs’ results. But when managers use the ambitious goals set for balanced scorecard measures as the basis for allocating resources and taps, setting priorities, they can undertake and biological, coordinate only whitman taps, those initiatives that move them toward their long-term strategic objectives. The fourth process— feedback and learning —gives companies the the second themes, capacity for what we call strategic learning. Existing feedback and review processes focus on whether the company, its departments, or its individual employees have met their budgeted financial goals. With the balanced scorecard at the center of its management systems, a company can monitor short-term results from the three additional perspectives—customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth—and evaluate strategy in the light of recent performance.

The scorecard thus enables companies to modify strategies to reflect real-time learning. None of the more than 100 organizations that we have studied or with which we have worked implemented their first balanced scorecard with the intention of developing a new strategic management system. But in each one, the senior executives discovered that the scorecard supplied a framework and thus a focus for walt whitman drum, many critical management processes: departmental and individual goal setting, business planning, capital allocations, strategic initiatives, and feedback and learning. Previously, those processes were uncoordinated and often directed at short-term operational goals. By building the scorecard, the senior executives started a process of change that has gone well beyond the franchising of entry by:, original idea of simply broadening the company’s performance measures. For example, one insurance company—let’s call it National Insurance—developed its first balanced scorecard to create a new vision for itself as an underwriting specialist. But once National started to use it, the scorecard allowed the CEO and the senior management team not only to introduce a new strategy for the organization but also to whitman taps, overhaul the company’s management system. The CEO subsequently told employees in a letter addressed to the whole organization that National would thenceforth use the balanced scorecard and the philosophy that it represented to manage the business. National built its new strategic management system step-by-step over 30 months, with each step representing an incremental improvement. (See the exhibit “How One Company Built a Strategic Management System…”) The iterative sequence of actions enabled the paper, company to reconsider each of the four new management processes two or three times before the system stabilized and became an established part of National’s overall management system.

Thus the CEO was able to transform the walt taps, company so that everyone could focus on achieving long-term strategic objectives—something that no purely financial framework could do. The CEO of an engineering construction company, after working with his senior management team for sample, several months to develop a mission statement, got a phone call from a project manager in whitman the field. Nursing Diagnosis For Dementia? “I want you to know,” the distraught manager said, “that I believe in the mission statement. I want to act in drum accordance with the franchising as a mode of entry into foreign by:, mission statement. I’m here with my customer. What am I supposed to do?”

The mission statement, like those of whitman drum, many other organizations, had declared an Essay Era, intention to “use high-quality employees to provide services that surpass customers’ needs.” But the project manager in the field with his employees and his customer did not know how to translate those words into the appropriate actions. The phone call convinced the CEO that a large gap existed between the mission statement and employees’ knowledge of how their day-to-day actions could contribute to realizing the company’s vision. The Balanced Scorecard: Measures That Drive Performance. Metro Bank (not its real name), the taps, result of a merger of two competitors, encountered a similar gap while building its balanced scorecard. The senior executive group thought it had reached agreement on the new organization’s overall strategy: “to provide superior service to targeted customers.” Research had revealed five basic market segments among existing and potential customers, each with different needs. While formulating the measures for the customer-perspective portion of small communication, their balanced scorecard, however, it became apparent that although the 25 senior executives agreed on the words of the strategy, each one had a different definition of superior service and whitman taps, a different image of the targeted customers . The exercise of developing operational measures for the four perspectives on the bank’s scorecard forced the 25 executives to clarify the meaning of the strategy statement. Ultimately, they agreed to stimulate revenue growth through new products and services and also agreed on the three most desirable customer segments. They developed scorecard measures for the specific products and services that should be delivered to customers in the targeted segments as well as for the relationship the bank should build with customers in each segment. The scorecard also highlighted gaps in employees’ skills and in information systems that the bank would have to close in order to deliver the selected value propositions to the targeted customers.

Thus, creating a balanced scorecard forced the bank’s senior managers to arrive at a consensus and small group communication example, then to translate their vision into terms that had meaning to drum taps, the people who would realize the nursing, vision. “The top ten people in the business now understand the strategy better than ever before. It’s too bad,” a senior executive of a major oil company complained, “that we can’t put this in a bottle so that everyone could share it.” With the balanced scorecard, he can. One company we have worked with deliberately involved three layers of management in the creation of its balanced scorecard. The senior executive group formulated the financial and customer objectives. It then mobilized the talent and information in walt whitman the next two levels of managers by having them formulate the internal-business-process and learning-and-growth objectives that would drive the achievement of the franchising as a of entry markets is employed by:, financial and customer goals. For example, knowing the importance of satisfying customers’ expectations of walt drum taps, on-time delivery, the broader group identified several internal business processes—such as order processing, scheduling, and fulfillment—in which the sample, company had to excel. Whitman? To do so, the company would have to retrain frontline employees and improve the information systems available to them.

The group developed performance measures for those critical processes and for staff and systems capabilities. Broad participation in creating a scorecard takes longer, but it offers several advantages: Information from a larger number of managers is incorporated into the internal objectives; the managers gain a better understanding of the company’s long-term strategic goals; and such broad participation builds a stronger commitment to small group communication, achieving those goals. But getting managers to buy into walt drum taps, the scorecard is only a first step in linking individual actions to diagnosis for dementia, corporate goals. The balanced scorecard signals to everyone what the organization is trying to achieve for shareholders and customers alike. But to align employees’ individual performances with the overall strategy, scorecard users generally engage in whitman drum taps three activities: communicating and educating, setting goals, and linking rewards to performance measures. Implementing a strategy begins with educating those who have to execute it. Coming Themes? Whereas some organizations opt to hold their strategy close to whitman drum, the vest, most believe that they should disseminate it from top to bottom. A broad-based communication program shares with all employees the strategy and the critical objectives they have to meet if the strategy is to succeed.

Onetime events such as the distribution of brochures or newsletters and the holding of “town meetings” might kick off the program. Some organizations post bulletin boards that illustrate and explain the balanced scorecard measures, then update them with monthly results. Others use groupware and electronic bulletin boards to distribute the scorecard to the desktops of coming, all employees and to encourage dialogue about the measures. The same media allow employees to make suggestions for drum taps, achieving or exceeding the targets. The balanced scorecard, as the embodiment of business unit strategy, should also be communicated upward in nursing the organization—to corporate headquarters and to the corporate board of directors. With the whitman, scorecard, business units can quantify and communicate their long-term strategies to senior executives using a comprehensive set of linked financial and nonfinancial measures. Such communication informs the executives and the board in small group example specific terms that long-term strategies designed for competitive success are in place.

The measures also provide the basis for feedback and accountability. Meeting short-term financial targets should not constitute satisfactory performance when other measures indicate that the long-term strategy is whitman taps, either not working or not being implemented well. Should the balanced scorecard be communicated beyond the boardroom to external shareholders? We believe that as senior executives gain confidence in the ability of the scorecard measures to monitor strategic performance and biological, predict future financial performance, they will find ways to inform outside investors about drum taps, those measures without disclosing competitively sensitive information. Skandia, an insurance and financial services company based in Sweden, issues a supplement to its annual report called “The Business Navigator”—“an instrument to help us navigate into the future and thereby stimulate renewal and development.” The supplement describes Skandia’s strategy and group communication, the strategic measures the company uses to communicate and evaluate the strategy.

It also provides a report on the company’s performance along those measures during the year. The measures are customized for each operating unit and include, for example, market share, customer satisfaction and retention, employee competence, employee empowerment, and technology deployment. Communicating the balanced scorecard promotes commitment and accountability to the business’s long-term strategy. As one executive at whitman taps, Metro Bank declared, “The balanced scorecard is both motivating and obligating.” Mere awareness of nursing, corporate goals, however, is not enough to change many people’s behavior. Somehow, the organization’s high-level strategic objectives and measures must be translated into objectives and measures for operating units and individuals. The exploration group of a large oil company developed a technique to enable and encourage individuals to set goals for themselves that were consistent with the organization’s.

It created a small, fold-up, personal scorecard that people could carry in their shirt pockets or wallets. (See the whitman, exhibit “The Personal Scorecard.”) The scorecard contains three levels of theories of aggression, information. The first describes corporate objectives, measures, and targets. Walt Drum? The second leaves room for translating corporate targets into targets for each business unit. For the third level, the company asks both individuals and teams to articulate which of their own objectives would be consistent with the business unit and coming, corporate objectives, as well as what initiatives they would take to achieve their objectives. It also asks them to define up to five performance measures for their objectives and to set targets for each measure.

The personal scorecard helps to communicate corporate and walt whitman, business unit objectives to the second themes, the people and walt taps, teams performing the work, enabling them to translate the objectives into meaningful tasks and targets for themselves. It also lets them keep that information close at hand—in their pockets. Linking rewards to performance measures. Should compensation systems be linked to balanced scorecard measures? Some companies, believing that tying financial compensation to performance is a powerful lever, have moved quickly to establish such a linkage. For example, an nursing diagnosis for dementia, oil company that we’ll call Pioneer Petroleum uses its scorecard as the sole basis for whitman taps, computing incentive compensation.

The company ties 60% of nursing diagnosis, its executives’ bonuses to their achievement of ambitious targets for a weighted average of four financial indicators: return on capital, profitability, cash flow, and operating cost. It bases the remaining 40% on indicators of customer satisfaction, dealer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and environmental responsibility (such as a percentage change in the level of emissions to water and walt whitman taps, air). Pioneer’s CEO says that linking compensation to the scorecard has helped to align the company with its strategy. Small Group Communication? “I know of no competitor,” he says, “who has this degree of walt taps, alignment. It is Essay on An of the and Progressive Era, producing results for us.” As attractive and as powerful as such linkage is, it nonetheless carries risks. For instance, does the company have the right measures on the scorecard? Does it have valid and reliable data for walt taps, the selected measures?

Could unintended or unexpected consequences arise from the way the targets for the measures are achieved? Those are questions that companies should ask. Furthermore, companies traditionally handle multiple objectives in a compensation formula by assigning weights to of aggression, each objective and calculating incentive compensation by the extent to drum taps, which each weighted objective was achieved. This practice permits substantial incentive compensation to nursing, be paid if the business unit overachieves on a few objectives even if it falls far short on others. A better approach would be to whitman drum, establish minimum threshold levels for a critical subset of the strategic measures. Individuals would earn no incentive compensation if performance in a given period fell short of any threshold. This requirement should motivate people to achieve a more balanced performance across short- and long-term objectives. Some organizations, however, have reduced their emphasis on short-term, formula-based incentive systems as a result of introducing the balanced scorecard.

They have discovered that dialogue among executives and managers about the nursing diagnosis, scorecard—both the whitman drum, formulation of the measures and objectives and the explanation of actual versus targeted results—provides a better opportunity to observe managers’ performance and abilities. Increased knowledge of their managers’ abilities makes it easier for executives to set incentive rewards subjectively and to small group communication example, defend those subjective evaluations—a process that is less susceptible to the game playing and distortions associated with explicit, formula-based rules. One company we have studied takes an intermediate position. Drum Taps? It bases bonuses for business unit managers on two equally weighted criteria: their achievement of a financial objective—economic value added—over a three-year period and a subjective assessment of their performance on measures drawn from the customer, internal-business-process, and learning-and-growth perspectives of the balanced scorecard. That the balanced scorecard has a role to play in the determination of incentive compensation is not in biological theories doubt. Precisely what that role should be will become clearer as more companies experiment with linking rewards to scorecard measures. “Where the rubber meets the sky”: That’s how one senior executive describes his company’s long-range-planning process. He might have said the walt, same of many other companies because their financially based management systems fail to link change programs and sample term, resource allocation to long-term strategic priorities.

The problem is that most organizations have separate procedures and whitman drum, organizational units for nursing diagnosis for dementia, strategic planning and for resource allocation and budgeting. To formulate their strategic plans, senior executives go off-site annually and walt whitman drum, engage for several days in active discussions facilitated by senior planning and development managers or external consultants. The outcome of this exercise is a strategic plan articulating where the company expects (or hopes or prays) to be in three, five, and ten years. Nursing For Dementia? Typically, such plans then sit on executives’ bookshelves for the next 12 months. Meanwhile, a separate resource-allocation and budgeting process run by the finance staff sets financial targets for revenues, expenses, profits, and investments for the next fiscal year. The budget it produces consists almost entirely of financial numbers that generally bear little relation to walt drum, the targets in term paper the strategic plan.

Which document do corporate managers discuss in their monthly and quarterly meetings during the following year? Usually only the budget, because the taps, periodic reviews focus on a comparison of actual and budgeted results for every line item. When is the the second, strategic plan next discussed? Probably during the next annual off-site meeting, when the senior managers draw up a new set of drum taps, three-, five-, and ten-year plans. The very exercise of creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to diagnosis, integrate their strategic planning and budgeting processes and therefore helps to ensure that their budgets support their strategies. Scorecard users select measures of progress from all four scorecard perspectives and set targets for each of them. Then they determine which actions will drive them toward their targets, identify the measures they will apply to those drivers from the four perspectives, and establish the drum taps, short-term milestones that will mark their progress along the strategic paths they have selected. Nursing For Dementia? Building a scorecard thus enables a company to link its financial budgets with its strategic goals. For example, one division of the Style Company (not its real name) committed to achieving a seemingly impossible goal articulated by the CEO: to double revenues in five years. The forecasts built into the organization’s existing strategic plan fell $1 billion short of this objective.

The division’s managers, after considering various scenarios, agreed to whitman drum, specific increases in the second five different performance drivers: the number of new stores opened, the number of new customers attracted into new and existing stores, the percentage of walt whitman drum, shoppers in each store converted into actual purchasers, the portion of existing customers retained, and average sales per customer. By helping to define the key drivers of revenue growth and by committing to targets for each of them, the division’s managers eventually grew comfortable with the CEO’s ambitious goal. The process of building a balanced scorecard—clarifying the strategic objectives and on An Analysis of the Populist and Progressive Era, then identifying the few critical drivers—also creates a framework for managing an organization’s various change programs. These initiatives—reengineering, employee empowerment, time-based management, and total quality management, among others—promise to deliver results but also compete with one another for scarce resources, including the scarcest resource of walt drum taps, all: senior managers’ time and attention. Shortly after the merger that created it, Metro Bank, for example, launched more than 70 different initiatives. The initiatives were intended to produce a more competitive and successful institution, but they were inadequately integrated into the overall strategy. After building their balanced scorecard, Metro Bank’s managers dropped many of those programs—such as a marketing effort directed at individuals with very high net worth—and consolidated others into nursing for dementia, initiatives that were better aligned with the whitman drum taps, company’s strategic objectives. For example, the managers replaced a program aimed at enhancing existing low-level selling skills with a major initiative aimed at retraining salespersons to become trusted financial advisers, capable of selling a broad range of newly introduced products to on An Populist, the three selected customer segments. The bank made both changes because the scorecard enabled it to whitman taps, gain a better understanding of the themes, programs required to achieve its strategic objectives.

Once the strategy is defined and whitman taps, the drivers are identified, the as a of entry foreign markets, scorecard influences managers to concentrate on walt drum, improving or reengineering those processes most critical to the organization’s strategic success. That is how the scorecard most clearly links and aligns action with strategy. The final step in linking strategy to actions is to nursing for dementia, establish specific short-term targets, or milestones, for the balanced scorecard measures. Milestones are tangible expressions of managers’ beliefs about when and to what degree their current programs will affect those measures. Putting the whitman, Balanced Scorecard to the second coming themes, Work. In establishing milestones, managers are expanding the traditional budgeting process to incorporate strategic as well as financial goals. Detailed financial planning remains important, but financial goals taken by themselves ignore the three other balanced scorecard perspectives. In an walt, integrated planning and budgeting process, executives continue to budget for short-term financial performance, but they also introduce short-term targets for measures in the customer, internal-business-process, and group communication, learning-and-growth perspectives. With those milestones established, managers can continually test both the theory underlying the strategy and the strategy’s implementation.

At the walt taps, end of the business-planning process, managers should have set targets for the long-term objectives they would like to achieve in all four scorecard perspectives; they should have identified the strategic initiatives required and small example, allocated the necessary resources to those initiatives; and walt, they should have established milestones for the measures that mark progress toward achieving their strategic goals. “With the balanced scorecard,” a CEO of an communication, engineering company told us, “I can continually test my strategy. Walt Whitman Drum Taps? It’s like performing real-time research.” That is exactly the diagnosis for dementia, capability that the walt whitman, scorecard should give senior managers: the ability to know at any point in its implementation whether the strategy they have formulated is, in fact, working, and if not, why. The first three management processes—translating the vision, communicating and linking, and business planning—are vital for the second, implementing strategy, but they are not sufficient in an unpredictable world. Drum Taps? Together they form an the second coming themes, important single-loop-learning process—single-loop in the sense that the objective remains constant, and any departure from the planned trajectory is seen as a defect to be remedied. This single-loop process does not require or even facilitate reexamination of either the strategy or the drum, techniques used to implement it in light of biological, current conditions. Most companies today operate in walt whitman drum a turbulent environment with complex strategies that, though valid when they were launched, may lose their validity as business conditions change. In this kind of environment, where new threats and opportunities arise constantly, companies must become capable of what Chris Argyris calls double-loop learning —learning that produces a change in people’s assumptions and theories about cause-and-effect relationships. (See “Teaching Smart People How to Learn,” HBR May–June 1991.) Budget reviews and other financially based management tools cannot engage senior executives in double-loop learning—first, because these tools address performance from only one perspective, and second, because they don’t involve strategic learning. Strategic learning consists of gathering feedback, testing the hypotheses on which strategy was based, and making the necessary adjustments. The balanced scorecard supplies three elements that are essential to strategic learning.

First, it articulates the company’s shared vision, defining in clear and operational terms the results that the company, as a team, is trying to diagnosis, achieve. The scorecard communicates a holistic model that links individual efforts and accomplishments to whitman taps, business unit objectives. Second, the scorecard supplies the the second, essential strategic feedback system. A business strategy can be viewed as a set of hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships. A strategic feedback system should be able to whitman drum taps, test, validate, and modify the hypotheses embedded in a business unit’s strategy. By establishing short-term goals, or milestones, within the business-planning process, executives are forecasting the relationship between changes in performance drivers and the associated changes in one or more specified goals. For example, executives at Metro Bank estimated the Essay Analysis Populist, amount of time it would take for improvements in training and in the availability of information systems before employees could sell multiple financial products effectively to existing and new customers. They also estimated how great the effect of that selling capability would be. Another organization attempted to validate its hypothesized cause-and-effect relationships in the balanced scorecard by measuring the strength of the linkages among measures in the different perspectives. (See the exhibit “How One Company Linked Measures from the walt whitman drum taps, Four Perspectives.”) The company found significant correlations between employees’ morale, a measure in the learning-and-growth perspective, and Essay of the and Progressive, customer satisfaction, an important customer perspective measure. Customer satisfaction, in turn, was correlated with faster payment of invoices—a relationship that led to a substantial reduction in accounts receivable and whitman drum taps, hence a higher return on capital employed. Term? The company also found correlations between employees’ morale and the number of suggestions made by employees (two learning-and-growth measures) as well as between an whitman drum, increased number of suggestions and lower rework (an internal-business-process measure).

Evidence of such strong correlations help to confirm the organization’s business strategy. Of Aggression? If, however, the expected correlations are not found over time, it should be an indication to walt drum, executives that the theory underlying the unit’s strategy may not be working as they had anticipated. Especially in large organizations, accumulating sufficient data to of aggression, document significant correlations and causation among balanced scorecard measures can take a long time—months or years. Over the whitman, short term, managers’ assessment of themes, strategic impact may have to whitman, rest on subjective and the second themes, qualitative judgments. Drum Taps? Eventually, however, as more evidence accumulates, organizations may be able to provide more objectively grounded estimates of cause-and-effect relationships. But just getting managers to of entry into is employed, think systematically about the assumptions underlying their strategy is an taps, improvement over the current practice of nursing diagnosis for dementia, making decisions based on short-term operational results.

Third, the drum, scorecard facilitates the strategy review that is essential to strategic learning. Traditionally, companies use the monthly or quarterly meetings between corporate and division executives to analyze the small communication example, most recent period’s financial results. Discussions focus on past performance and on walt taps, explanations of why financial objectives were not achieved. For Dementia? The balanced scorecard, with its specification of the drum taps, causal relationships between performance drivers and objectives, allows corporate and business unit executives to Populist, use their periodic review sessions to walt, evaluate the validity of the unit’s strategy and diagnosis for dementia, the quality of its execution. If the unit’s employees and managers have delivered on the performance drivers (retraining of employees, availability of information systems, and new financial products and services, for instance), then their failure to achieve the whitman drum taps, expected outcomes (higher sales to targeted customers, for example) signals that the theory underlying the sample, strategy may not be valid. The disappointing sales figures are an early warning. Managers should take such disconfirming evidence seriously and reconsider their shared conclusions about market conditions, customer value propositions, competitors’ behavior, and whitman drum taps, internal capabilities.

The result of Essay Populist and Progressive, such a review may be a decision to reaffirm their belief in the current strategy but to adjust the quantitative relationship among the strategic measures on the balanced scorecard. But they also might conclude that the unit needs a different strategy (an example of double-loop learning) in light of new knowledge about market conditions and internal capabilities. In any case, the scorecard will have stimulated key executives to learn about the viability of their strategy. This capacity for enabling organizational learning at the executive level—strategic learning—is what distinguishes the balanced scorecard, making it invaluable for those who wish to create a strategic management system. Toward a New Strategic Management System.

Many companies adopted early balanced scorecard concepts to improve their performance measurement systems. Walt Drum Taps? They achieved tangible but narrow results. Adopting those concepts provided clarification, consensus, and focus on small group example, the desired improvements in performance. More recently, we have seen companies expand their use of the balanced scorecard, employing it as the drum, foundation of an integrated and iterative strategic management system. Companies are using the scorecard to. clarify and update strategy; communicate strategy throughout the company; align unit and individual goals with the strategy; link strategic objectives to long-term targets and annual budgets; identify and align strategic initiatives; and conduct periodic performance reviews to for dementia, learn about and improve strategy.

The balanced scorecard enables a company to walt whitman, align its management processes and focuses the on An Analysis Populist Era, entire organization on implementing long-term strategy. At National Insurance, the scorecard provided the CEO and his managers with a central framework around which they could redesign each piece of the company’s management system. Whitman Taps? And because of the cause-and-effect linkages inherent in the scorecard framework, changes in one component of the group communication, system reinforced earlier changes made elsewhere. Therefore, every change made over the 30-month period added to walt drum taps, the momentum that kept the organization moving forward in the agreed-upon direction. Without a balanced scorecard, most organizations are unable to biological theories of aggression, achieve a similar consistency of vision and action as they attempt to change direction and walt whitman, introduce new strategies and processes. The balanced scorecard provides a framework for managing the biological of aggression, implementation of strategy while also allowing the strategy itself to evolve in response to changes in the company’s competitive, market, and technological environments.

Robert S. Kaplan is a senior fellow and the Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development, Emeritus, at drum taps, Harvard Business School. He is a coauthor, with Michael E. Porter, of Populist Era, “How to Solve the Cost Crisis in Health Care” (HBR, September 2011). David P. Norton is a founder and walt whitman taps, director of the Palladium Group and is co-author of The Balanced Scorecard .

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I Don'T Know What To Write My Paper About - J D McClatchy reads Walt Whitman s "Drum-Taps" (Poetry of

Accounts Payable Manager Resume Samples. The best examples from thousands of real-world resumes. Handpicked by resume experts based on rigorous standards. Tailored for various backgrounds and experience levels. Accounts Payable Managers manage the functions related to walt drum the purchase ledge and sample ensure that company invoices are paid on time. Example resumes of Accounts Payable Managers show responsibilities like acting as a liaison with all departments, auditors and compliance personnel for ad hoc reporting and testing; and reviewing all invoice packaging and general ledger coding prior to processing. While a high school diploma is the whitman drum minimum educational requirement for the position, some employers prefer to see an associate's degree on candidates' resumes. For more information on what it takes to be a Accounts Payable Manager, check out our complete Accounts Payable Manager Job Description. Supervised 6 AP representatives, including management of all facets of department. Biological. Drove and walt drum coordinated accounts payable functions for 3 off-site / 3 on-site staff members, thereby improving workflow 20%.

Reallocated job duties for staff to improve workflow by focusing on individual's strengths / responsibilities, which reduced duplication of effort and resulted in Essay Populist and Progressive Era 85% reduction in walt whitman drum taps account errors. Transitioned AP functions from 2 off-site locations to biological corporate headquarters. Realigned workload and reduced head count without disruption of services to vendor accounts. Project Lead for Chart of whitman drum, Account conversion and on-line purchasing and biological expense reporting interfaces. Transitioned AP / Purchasing / Receiving functions of walt whitman drum, $30M e-business acquisition. Established / supervised process to address / rectify errors in prepaid, asset / accrual account allocations, resulting in major time reduction by GL staff for accurate reconciliation. Managed day-to-day operations of different AP areas including PO and Non-PO invoice processing, Vendor Desk, Internal Client Vendor Relations, and Payment Processing. Managed team of 15 employees including recruitment, hiring, and daily workforce allocations. Sample Term. Implemented and managed a Virtual Card payment program that generated revenues close to $3M in one year.

Reduced over 100 hours in processing time and 30 days in cycle time in one year through implementation of drum, process improvement projects that focused on eliminating non-value add steps. Developed queries and biological generated reports for upper management which summarized multiple information including expenses, vendor spend, forecasts, etc. Maintained department's score card information including staff productivity, invoice processing cost, and walt whitman drum cost allocations. Generated and filed 1099s for on An of the Populist and Progressive Era, 15 properties. Provided leadership, training and development to a team of four Accounts Payable specialists in multiple locations. Monitored all Accounts Payable processes, including 1099 processing, petty cash, credit cards, expense report and fleet management account reconciliation Assisted Controller with cash planning; provided recommendation on weekly vendor cash disbursements Developed maintained strong vendor relationships, contracts negotiated payment terms Created maintained departmental policies, job descriptions and performance evaluations for Accounts Payable Team Assisted Finance Team with month end processing, including accruals and account reconciliations. Hired, trained, and managed Account Payables Department. Conducted quarterly meeting to implement new efficient procedures and eliminate inefficient procedures. Efficiently managed the accurate and timely processing of over 1200 invoices per month.

Reviewed all invoices validating all content and resolving various issues. Provided a detailed report to district manager monthly which included A/P figures such as total volume, Used a wide range of accounting software including Accpac, AS 400 and all Microsoft Computer Applications (i.e. Excel, PowerPoint and Access) Organized thorough cross checking of whitman drum, tax codes, packing lists, receivers and quotes to ensure accurate billings. Term. Strengthened company's vendor/suppliers relations by continuously corresponding with vendors via phone, email or written communication. Negotiated payment and discounts terms with vendors/suppliers which improved company's profit. Negotiated payment terms with vendors/suppliers which extended due dates and avoided finance charges. Efficiently maintained processing of accounts payable transactions. Monitored company accounts to ensure payments up to date, and resolved bill discrepancies. Reviewed vendor invoices as well as check requests: sort, organized and match bills and check demands. Ensured timely payments of vendor invoices and expense vouchers.

Maintained accurate records and control reports. Reviewed accounting reports and AP register to ensure accuracy. Reviewed inventory analysis reports and addressed any variances. Responsible for monitoring inventory transactions. Walt Whitman Drum Taps. Set Invoices for payment procedure. Put together and accounts payable checks, wire exchanges and paper ACH obligation. Reconciled bank statements, credit card and deposits. Prepared analysis associated with accounts. Produced month-to-month reports and assisted in 30- day end closing.

Assistant Accounts Payable Manager. Manage staff of 4 supervisors, 17 accounts payable associates, and walt whitman drum taps 4 file clerks. Accountable for all general accounts payable functions including, twice a week cash forecasting, month end journal entries and reconciliation, process 1099 reports, handled general accounting issues, and small group staffing functions for walt taps, a privately owned retail fashion company. Nursing Diagnosis. Instrumental in supporting the company's rapid growth and expansion, including managing the processing of up to 50,000 invoices ($25M) per whitman taps, month. Developed and implemented new processes to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the department and increase staff accountability. Effectively managed a team by recruiting, developing, setting priorities and providing clear direction to the employees, address performance issues and make recommendations for personnel actions. Automated manual accounting and financial analysis/reporting functions with Excel Spearheaded the implementation and staff training for ACOM EZPay electronic check signing software. Served as liaison for the accounts payable department in of entry into foreign is employed providing resolution to invoice disputes. Director of all aspects of walt whitman taps, Accounts Payable with five direct reports including a day to day functional A/P Manager.

Completed business case to streamline current A/P functions to best practiced automated A/P processes inclusive of the implementation roll out of Concur Automated TE and Invoice System. Completed discovery phase of implementing and the second roll out of walt, A/P module for sample term paper, new financial system to include PO matching and approval workflow. Walt Whitman Drum. Conducted system analysis knowledge share exercises resulting in nursing an automated process improvement of the walt whitman Visa Amex corporate card programs resulting in Essay Analysis of the and Progressive Era decreased data entry input time from two days to two hours. Implemented documented procedures to correct identified risk and non-compliance with annual IRS 1099 and B-Notice process. Walt. Created desk top procedures for a variety of processes within the department to ensure adherence to company policies. On An And Progressive Era. Drafted and distributed 60+ days delinquent Visa Report Notice Letter resulting in a more timely submission of travel employees individual Visa Card statements. Accounts Payable Manager (implementation Consultant) Managed an A/P staff of 33 including recruiting, training, development, employee write-ups, employee performance reviews, monthly statistics. Created A/P forms as needed (i.e. Walt Whitman. Vendor Maintenance, Daily Scan Tracking, Electronic Funds Transfer, Gift Card Acknowledgment of nursing diagnosis for dementia, Receipt) Managed the walt drum taps supervision of vendor maintenance team, including vendor account verifications, audits, research, consolidations, W9, W8, 1099s, First B-Notice Tracked and term paper monitored acquisition invoices, returned checks, weekly American Express activities, audited monthly American Express accounts Managed Federal Express Corporate account and set up Dun Bradstreet account Performed weekly EDI uploads using Core FTP, released batches daily, audited Petty Cash reconciliations, approved invoices electronically in Ascend queue Developed Policies Procedures including vendor maintenance for walt whitman drum taps, multiple entities, vendor set up guidelines, and invoice numbering Coordinated month-end, quarter-end and year-end closing of books.

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Completed month-end closing deadlines. Reviewed unposted accounts payable entries and made coding corrections as requested by G/L department. Interviewed and nursing for dementia screened Accounts Payable Specialist applicants. Facilitated the coordinated and accurate reporting of 1099s to federal and state jurisdictions. Regularly reviewed and reconciled Accounts Payable aging and outstanding checks. Assisted Treasury Department as back-up for weekly cash borrowing base, daily cash reconditions and performed wire transfers. Free Professional Resume Critique. We have partnered with TopResume to bring you a FREE resume critique service.

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Type My Essay For Me - Whitman s Drum-Taps in a Time of War | Academy of American Poets

Nov 18, 2017 Walt whitman drum taps,

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Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in an Aging America (2003) IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS: MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for taps a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks.

E lder mistreatment is of the Populist and Progressive, a recognized social problem of uncertain, though probably increasing, magnitude. Based on the best available estimates, between 1 and 2 million Americans 65 or older have been injured, exploited, or otherwise mistreated by walt drum taps, someone on whom they depended for care or protection (Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988; Pavlik et al., 2001). The number of cases of elder mistreatment will undoubtedly increase over the next several decades, as the population ages. Yet little is known about its characteristics, causes, or consequences or about effective means of coming themes prevention or management. This report is meant to point the way toward better understanding of the nature and whitman scope of the problem, a necessary condition for the development of informed policies and programs. After summarizing the social context within which the field has developed, this chapter assesses the present state of knowledge, identifies some of the problems that must be addressed if the field is to move forward, and locates the problem of elder mistreatment in the second coming themes, a larger set of challenges confronting an taps, aging society. AN AGING AND VULNERABLE POPULATION. The aging of the population of the United States is the second, a well-recognized demographic fact. The life expectancy of people born in walt drum taps, the United States has been rising throughout the past century. The proportion of the Analysis of the Populist and Progressive, population age 65 and older has increased dramatically since 1950.

Between 1950 and 2000, the whitman taps, total population of the country increased by 87 percent, the. population age 65 and as a of entry into markets is employed primarily older increased by drum, 188 percent, and the population 85 and older increased by 635 percent (Eberhardt et al., 2001, Hetzel and Smith, 2001). Over this same period, the life expectancy of people at age 65 increased from 13.9 to 17.9 years (Natonal Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data, 2001). These trends will likely be accentuated by the aging of the post-WWII baby boom generation. The Second Themes? The U.S. Bureau of the Census predicts that by drum, 2030, the population over the second age 65 will nearly triple to more than 70 million people, and older people will make up more than 20 percent of the population (up from 12.3 percent in 1990) (Population Projections Program, 2000). It is heartening that large proportions of the nation’s older people are living without substantial disability. Among people age 75 and older in 1999, 70 percent described their health as good or excellent (Eberhardt et al., 2001).

Inevitably, however, the aging of the population is also associated with increases in age-related diseases and disabilities. Of the estimated 12.8 million Americans reporting need for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLseating, dressing, bathing, transferring between the bed and a chair, toileting, controlling bladder and bowel) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLspreparing meals, performing housework, taking drugs, going on errands, managing finances, using a telephone), 57 percent (7.3 million people) were over the age of 65 (Administration on Aging, 1997). Dementia is present in approximately 5 to walt, 10 percent of persons age 65 and older and 30 to example, 39 percent of persons age 85 and older (Rice et al., 2001; Henderson, 1998). Among people age 85 and older in walt whitman, 1999, 33 percent reported themselves to be in fair or poor health, 84 percent had disabilities involving mobility (unpublished data Natonal Center for Health Statistics, 2002), and 16 percent had Alzheimer’s disease (Brookmeyer et al., 1998). Given the projected growth in coming themes, the elderly population, long-term care for elderly people with disabilities has become an whitman drum, increasingly urgent policy concern (Institute of Medicine, 2001; Stone, 2000). The settings in which long-term care is provided depend on a variety of factors, including the older person’s needs and preferences, the availability of informal support, and the source of reimbursement for care. An increasing number of elderly people reside outside traditional home settings in highly restrictive institutional environments (such as skilled or intermediate nursing facilities) or in less restrictive community-based residential settings, such as assisted living facilities, board and care homes, and adult foster homes.

Among the nursing diagnosis, 34 million persons over age 65 in 1995, 5 percent were nursing home residents, and 12 percent lived in the community setting with ADL or IADL limitations. The number of nursing home residents increased between 19731974 and 1999 from 961,500 to walt whitman drum, 1,469,500 among those age 65 and older, and from 413,6000 to 757,100 among those 85 and older (Eberhardt et al., 2001). In 1999, another 500,000 elderly people were living in. assisted living facilities (Hawes et al., 1999). Among people age 85 and over, 21 percent were in nursing homes in on An of the and Progressive, 1995 and 49 percent were community residents with long-term care needs (Alecxih et al., 1997). The nursing home population tends to be older and more severely disabled than elders residing elsewhere, with about half of the residents being 85 or older and walt drum about half having five ADL limitations, in franchising mode of entry foreign is employed, 1996 (Stone, 2000); still, four out of five elderly persons with ADL or IADL impairments lived in the community setting (Alecxih et al., 1997).

Approximately 17 percent of whitman these community-dwelling older persons are considered severely disabled, with limitations in three or more ADLs. Small Example? Of those ADL-impaired elderly people living in community settings, 37 percent report that they need help but do not receive it or receive less help than is needed (Stone, 2000). Most long-term care for community-dwelling elders is provided in a traditional home setting, either in an older person’s own home, with or without a spouse, or in the home of a close relative. The 1994 National Long Term Care Survey indicated that more than 7 million Americans, mainly family members, provided 120 million hours of care to elders with functional disabilities living in drum taps, the community. However, the on An Analysis Populist, nature and character of the informal networks now providing long-term care services may change (Stone, 2000). The potential pool of adult children who can serve as caregivers is already decreasing, as a result of a variety of demographic trends, including divorce, smaller families, and increased workforce participation (Himes et al., 1996). These factors increase the pressures on families caring for walt whitman drum their elderly relatives and also are likely to increase the demand for institutional care. These trends highlight the term, growing challenge of whitman drum taps ensuring the safety and protecting the other interests of diagnosis for dementia elderly people in the diverse settings in whitman, which long-term care is provided.

No matter where they reside, older people are vulnerable not only to the infirmities and suffering associated with disease and disability, but also to neglect, victimization, and exploitation by others, including their caregivers. In this respect, protecting older people from nursing diagnosis mistreatment is an important element of the drum taps, broad challenge of ensuring quality services in long-term care. While elder mistreatment has attracted sustained efforts from practitioners and some interest from policy makers over the past two decades, it has not received concomitant attention from researchers or from the agencies that provide research funding. Franchising Mode Of Entry Markets Is Employed Primarily By:? No major foundation has identified this field as one of walt taps its priorities, and the federal investment has been modest at diagnosis for dementia, best. For example, fewer than 15 studies on whitman, elder mistreatment have been funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) since 1990, and support from mode into markets is employed primarily by: other agencies has been even less substantial. As a result, elder mistreatment research has thus far been confined to a small community of. investigators who have produced a modest body of knowledge concerning the whitman drum, phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of elder mistreatment. Essay Analysis And Progressive Era? Preventive and remedial interventions have been unsystematic, episodic, and poorly evaluated.

In recognition of these deficiencies, the National Institute on Aging requested the National Research Council to commission this study as the first step in an effort to broaden and deepen knowledge about the mistreatment of elders. Support was also provided by whitman drum, the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research on Women’s Health of the National Institutes of Health and the Agency for small example Health Care Research and Quality. This report presents a research agenda for consideration by walt, the National Institute on sample term paper, Aging and other potential sponsors of research on walt whitman drum taps, elder mistreatmenta term we explain more fully in Chapter 2. Research on elder mistreatment is in an early stage, reflecting its relatively recent recognition as a distinctand importantsocial problem. The prevailing understanding of the problem, and the social response to Essay on An Analysis Populist Era, it, have gradually emerged over the past half-century, shaped by evolving social responses to child protection and family violence as well as by an intensifying concern about walt whitman drum, neglect and victimization of vulnerable elderly people.

Family discord and mistreatment of of the its vulnerable members were outside the public domain for much of drum taps this country’s history. Responsibility for assisting families in group example, need was assumed mainly by religious organizations and walt whitman taps private charitable institutions. Although many states established asylums for people with mental illness during the 18th and 19th centuries, thereby providing some custodial protection for dependent or neglected adults, there was no legal basis for intervention into families until the late 19th century, when industrialization, immigration, and urbanization exacerbated family problems, including poverty and internal conflict, and also exposed them to public viewespecially when its victims were children. Sample Paper? The emergence of the juvenile court in drum, the early part of the 20th century represented a significant assertion of collective responsibility for protecting and “saving” children who had become ungovernable by their parents; over the following decades, the jurisdiction of the juvenile courts gradually reached children who were neglected or abused by their parents (Platt, 1969). The legal foundation for modern policies and programs for sample term elder protection was put in place after World War II, particularly during a burst of walt whitman taps national energy geared toward remediation of endemic social problems during the 1970s. Although the the second coming themes, threads of child protection, adult protection, and whitman family violence were intertwined in small group communication, the history of that period, they are summarized separately below. The current system for protection of elders and other vulnerable adults grew from the taps, child protection system, which itself is only about 40 years old in its modern form.

The seminal event in the formation of the modern child protection system was the publication of an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association by paper, a team of physicians at the University of Colorado, who proclaimed the existence of a “battered child syndrome” (Kempe et al., 1962). Pediatrician Henry Kempe, the leader of the group and founder of the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, spearheaded a movement to adopt mandated reporting laws. These laws, which were quickly adopted in all 50 states, rested on the premise that the abused child was an aberrant problem (amounting to drum, several hundred egregious cases each year in the United States), and on the belief that the problem could be solved if health professionals brought those cases to the attention of social service authorities. Although initial federal action did not occur until significantly later, with the adoption of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (Nelson, 1984), that legislation also required states to adopt mandated reporting and investigation as the primary strategy for protecting children. Drawing on their parens patriae authority to foreign markets, protect helpless citizens, a few states developed new public welfare programs during the 1940s and 1950s to protect adults who could not manage their own resources or protect themselves from walt drum taps harm. New adult protective services units were established not only to provide social services, but also to provide legal services, such as guardianship. Aroused by the second, these state innovations, federal interest in the problem first appeared in the 1960s.

Legislation was directed at drum, all adults who were seen as defenseless and susceptible to for dementia, being hurt by others. In 1962 Congress passed the Public Welfare Amendments to the Social Security Act, authorizing payments to the states to establish protective services for “persons with physical and/or mental limitations, who were unable to manage their own affairs . . . or who were neglected or exploited” (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1966). One of the demonstration projects funded by this new program was operated by a team at the Benjamin Rose Institute in Cleveland under Margaret Blenkner and her associates (Blenkner et al., 1974; Anetzberger et al., 2000). She matched a group of elders receiving protective services with a group from the community who were receiving traditional services, finding that those who were receiving protective services had a higher mortality rate and higher nursing home placement rate than those who were receiving. traditional services. Walt Drum Taps? This study raised important questions: Was the higher risk attributable to the intervention or to mode of entry into foreign markets by:, selection bias, and walt if the on An Populist, former, what aspect of the intervention increased the drum, risk?

Was it the nursing home placement? Notwithstanding this puzzling finding from the Blenkner study and other studies questioning the cost-effectiveness of protective services (Wolfe, this volume), advocates for the system continued to press for broader congressional action. Populist And Progressive Era? Eventually, in 1974, Congress amended the Social Security Act to require states to establish protective service units for adults with mental and physical impairments, who are unable to manage on their own, and whitman drum who were victims or were being exploited or neglected. The Second? Funding for the protective services was to come from social services block grants (SSBG) given by the federal government to the states. Until this time, most SSBG funds had been used exclusively for child protective services. This new federal program directed the states to provide protective services to adults who, “as a result of physical or mental limitations, are unable to act in their own behalf; are seriously limited in whitman drum taps, the management of their affairs; are neglected or exploited; or are living in unsafe or hazardous conditions.” A number of states then codified this federal mandate and, by 1978, 20 states had legislation establishing adult protection units as part of their social services agencies. This trend was accompanied by increasing use of SSBG dollars for adult protection: in 1980, 38 states reported that 83.3 million SSBG dollars were spent for adult protective services.

As SSBG appropriations declined during the 1980s, however, funding for adult protective services declined; by biological theories, 1985, it had declined by 42 percent. Scarce attention was paid to the problem of walt whitman elder abuse before 1978 except for some intermittent articles published in British and American medical and social services journals. In the late 1970s, the national spotlight was directed for of the and Progressive Era the first time at what was characterized as systematic mistreatment of elderly people. Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings, calling attention to the “hidden problem” of elder abuse in whitman drum taps, the nation’s families, including what one witness characterized as “granny battering” (Wolfe, this volume). Although the biological of aggression, Pepper hearings did not lead immediately to federal action or funding, they stimulated additional state action. As the state response continued to evolve in the early 1980s, many states required reporting of walt whitman abuse, bringing the problem within the biological, purview of adult protective services. By 1985, 46 states had designated a responsible agency.

Meanwhile, Congressman Pepper continued to agitate for a federal response to elder mistreatment. In a 1981 report (Pepper. and Okar, 1981), he stated that elder abuse was increasing and recommended that Congress act immediately to help the states identify and assist elder abuse victims. Again, however, Pepper’s plea was unheeded by walt whitman, the Congress. Finally, in 1989, Pepper succeeded in including creation of a national center on elder abuse as an amendment to themes, the Older Americans Act. Although various versions of a national center followed, the walt whitman drum, current National Center on Elder Abuse was established in 1998. In retrospect, it appears that elder mistreatment became identified as a national concern when it was conceptualized as an “aging” issue, rather than as an undifferentiated component of adult protection. This also helped to broaden the constituencies interested in research and sample paper program development to include gerontologists and the expanding network of service providers and advocates for the elderly.

The Pepper hearings also cast the problem of elder abuse in a particular lightas a complication of caregiving. The emerging image was that of an impaired victim, usually an elderly parent being cared for by an adult caregiver who wasn’t able to manage the caregiving because of stresses in life, on the job, and in the family. Even though it is only a partial explanation of drum taps elder mistreatment, this picture seemed to resonate with Congress and the media (Wolfe, this volume). Emerging Conceptions of Family Violence. The evolving understanding of elder mistreatment as a social problem has more recently been shaped by franchising as a mode foreign primarily by:, another imagethe trapped victim of family violence. Spouse abuse and other varieties of intimate partner violence have received increasing professional and political attention since the drum taps, 1980s, leading to nursing for dementia, a wide variety of walt drum interventions and a substantial investment in research (National Research Council, 1996; National Research Council and paper Institute of Medicine, 1998).

Prevention, protection, and punishment are necessary components of walt taps a comprehensive social response, requiring the participation and coordination of a broad array of public agencies. As the consciousness of themes health professionals has been raised, family violence has been embraced as a public health problem, thereby recruiting researchers and advocates in injury prevention and public health to the field (Institute of Medicine, 1999). Many of the preventive and protective tools developed in the context of intimate partner violence have now been directed to violence against whitman taps elders. Bringing elder mistreatment into the domain of family violence widens the angle of the lens and thereby brings new ideas about etiology and prevention into view. However, it also exposes some tensions between social services agencies, with their traditional helping orientation, and many family violence specialists, with their greater emphasis on of aggression, criminalization and punishment of perpetrators. Evolving conceptions of elder mistreatment, and the appropriate social responses to it, will also be shaped, inevitably, by the deep concerns that have emerged over the past decade in the field of child protection. In 1990, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued a highly publicized and rarely disputed declaration of whitman a national emergency in the child protection system. By that time, the theories of aggression, number of cases reported annually to state and county social service and law enforcement agencies in the United States approached 3 milliona number enormously discrepant from the 1962 estimate of Kempe et al. of approximately 300 cases annually.

Moreover, the advisory board found that, by state social service agencies’ own admission, many children officially found to have been maltreated received no services other than the investigation itself. The U.S. Advisory Board on walt whitman drum, Child Abuse and Neglect (1990) attributed the emergency to term paper, the errant design of the child protection system itself: the system has become preoccupied by walt drum, investigation (rather than prevention and treatment), and community responsibility for ensuring the safety of dependent children has effectively, if unintentionally, been diverted to theories of aggression, a small social service agency. In response, the board (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and walt drum taps Neglect, 1993) proposed a new national strategy designed to rely on voluntary action to make child protection a part of everyday life (see Melton and Barry, 1994, Melton et al., 2001, for the second coming themes edited books articulating the social science foundation for this approach). As Wolfe notes in his paper in this volume, several states have attempted to deemphasize investigation in their state child protection statutes, and some major foundations have undertaken initiatives to demonstrate the feasibility of a neighborhood-based, largely voluntary, and largely preventive and whitman supportive child protection system. Nonetheless, modal practice is small example, largely unchanged, and the enormity of the problem remains (Melton, 2002).

The tensions in taps, child protection policy (as well as the number of reported cases) have intensified as the scope of problems defined as child maltreatment has expanded. Nursing For Dementia? Although the modern system was created in response to the image of battered children, neglect has long been the modal reason for drum referral to child protection (Peddle and Wang, 2001), and most such cases involve complex social and coming themes economic problems, not willful neglect (Pelton, 1994). Similarly, the biggest increase in reporting occurred when sexual abuse was “discovered” early in the 1980s (Weisberg, 1984), and walt drum taps criminal prosecution became a common feature in the child protection system. Recognition of the frequent linkage between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment (see Carter et al., 1999) has also challenged the child protection system, which generally (except to some degree in cases of. sexual abuse and severe physical abuse) has not adopted the “perpetrator-victim” model commonly embraced by advocates for battered women (Melton and Andrews, 2000).

There are some signs of an uneasy rapprochement between the two systems (see, e.g., Schechter and Edleson, 1999), as some child protection authorities have adopted safety planning, a feature of victim empowerment in Essay of the Populist Era, programs for walt whitman battered women, as a potentially useful element of intervention in cases of child maltreatment. Even this development, however, has illustrated the field’s vulnerability to unintended side effects. The Second Coming Themes? For example, a legislative determination in Minnesota that exposure of children to intimate partner violence is per se evidence of child neglect led to an immediate doubling of referrals to child protective services, a huge increase in expenditures, and increased stress and whitman drum taps loss of confidentiality for women and their families living in shelters (Edleson, 2000). The Second Themes? It was also speculated that this policy, soon retracted by the legislature, deterred some battered women from seeking protection for themselves and their children. These tensions and policy adaptations in the field of child protection appear to be highly relevant to elder protection at this moment in the evolution of research and public policy in this nascent field. As discussed further in Chapter 6, adult protection services agencies grapple daily with the tensions between investigation and service, and prosecution and protection. Whitman Drum Taps? Agency caseloads reflect the highly diverse problems within their jurisdictions, ranging from intentional partner violence to far more numerous cases of caregiver neglect (as well as problems not arising in into foreign markets primarily, child protection, such as financial exploitation). The recent history of child protection offers many lessons for taps specialists in elder mistreatment. Prevailing conceptions of elder mistreatment draw on a diverse array of images (the forgotten and helpless nursing home resident, the battered granny, the stressed caregiver, the abusing spouse).

Moreover, the system of adult protection that has emerged to respond to these varied problems (as well as other problems relating to adults with disabilities) is based on ideas and structures borrowed from policy and practice in child maltreatment and, more recently, intimate partner violence. Yet prevailing policies and themes practices in these adjacent domains are not fully applicable to elder mistreatment and walt drum taps have been controversial on their own terms. Repeatedly, National Research Council and Institute of on An of the Populist and Progressive Era Medicine panels have called attention to the need for sustained and walt aggressive research on the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of these problems and on the effects of interventions (National Research Council, 1993, 1996; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998). In so doing, they. have noted that very little is known about the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of elder mistreatment, and that almost nothing is known about the effects of interventions. Although the term, body of evidence remains sparse, researchers have recently begun to raise doubts about the cost-effectiveness of current interventions (Dyer et al., 1999; Harrell et al., 2002; Pavlik et al., 2001; Hajjar and Duthie, 2001; Wolf and walt whitman drum taps Li, 1999). Overall, the franchising as a mode into foreign markets is employed, national response to elder mistreatment still remains weak and incomplete.

Adult protection is a poorly funded system, and Congressman Pepper’s single-minded emphasis on the abuse, exploitation, and drum taps neglect of for dementia vulnerable elderly people has not been sustained by his successors in Congress or by a public preoccupied with youthfulness and ill at ease with aging. As a result, elder mistreatment remains hidden, poorly characterized, and largely unaddressedmore than two decades after the Pepper hearings first exposed it to whitman drum taps, public view. Franchising As A Mode Into Foreign Markets? It is long past time to move the field forward in a careful and walt systematic way, drawing on the knowledge already generated in the domains of example child maltreatment and intimate partner violence, while remedying the weaknesses that have so far plagued the field. Although there is a sizable body of unpublished reports and whitman drum taps commentary on elder mistreatment, fewer than 50 peer-reviewed articles based on empirical research have been published in the field. (A summary of these studies appears in Appendix A.) Although these studies provide a foundation for further work, it is not a strong one. National Research Council (1993) and on An Analysis of the Populist Institute of Medicine reports (2001; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998) and other authoritative reviews (e.g., Pillemer, 2001; National Institute of Justice, 2000) have repeatedly lamented the weakness of the research base for designing programs and informing policy on the wide variety of overlapping problems, ranging from granny battering to neglect by nursing homes, that are grouped under the rubric of elder mistreatment. Whitman Drum Taps? A systematic program of research is nursing, needed to better describe the many facets of the walt, problem and to communication example, explore their causes and consequences.

Understanding the nature and scope of the problem is prerequisite to designing and implementing solutions. In the absence of the whitman taps, necessary research, interventions have been designed and theories implemented in walt drum taps, the dark, so to speak. Almost every state has required reporting of suspected cases of elder mistreatment, but little is known about the effects of these requirements (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998). A few states and localities have mounted some creative interventions, but these few initiatives have been poorly evaluated. It has often been said that elder. mistreatment, as a field of research, is at about the same embryonic stage of development as child mistreatment was about 30-40 years ago. Some of the weaknesses of elder mistreatment research are summarized below. Unclear and Inconsistent Definitions. The first major difficulty in analyzing results from previous research on elder abuse and neglect results from the poor definition of the term “elder abuse.” To some extent, this problem is a reflection of conceptual confusion: What type of behavior or condition is denoted by the concept of “abuse”? To some extent, it is also traceable to small, the variations and ambiguities of the state statutes that direct or authorize interventions in taps, cases of elder abuse or neglect. (The statutes are discussed in Chapter 2.) However, researchers have often exacerbated the problem by biological, failing to define or operationalize their terms in a clear and objective way.

For example, many researchers refer to the entire range of problems experienced by elders as “abuse,” including lack of proper housing, untreated medical conditions, and lack of social services. Walt Whitman Drum Taps? Most of the Essay Analysis of the Populist and Progressive Era, studies are weakened by their undifferentiated treatment of various types of abuse and walt drum neglect. That is, all forms of mistreatment are lumped together, despite evidence that the forms of small group communication abuse and whitman taps neglect differ substantially. In some studies, for example, it is difficult to determine whether financial exploitation is foreign primarily, included in the research definition. Studies are especially weakened by their inclusion of the category “self-abuse” or “self-neglect.” As discussed below, these terms refer to a category of walt whitman conditions that has little in common with the conditions that bear on abuse and neglect of elder persons by sample term paper, other people. Researchers have also diverged widely in their definitions of the pertinent component terms and walt whitman taps have frequently used confusing and unclear definitions. Small Example? For example, some researchers have used the term “abuse” tautologically; for example, one group of researchers defined elder abuse as “an abusive action inflicted by the abusers on adults 60 years of walt whitman drum age or older.” Another group called elder neglect and abuse “a generic term that refers to the neglect and/or physical, psychological, or financial abuse of the older person.” Furthermore, definitions have differed so widely from study to study that the results of research are almost impossible to compare.

While one set of as a mode into is employed primarily by: investigators calls “withholding of personal care” physical abuse, a second researcher calls it active neglect; a third subsumes such actions under physical neglect; and yet a fourth considers such behaviors to be “psychological neglect.” Similarly, some researchers define physical abuse in terms of actions: hitting, pushing, choking, etc. Others, however, use lists of injuries to define physical elder abuse, such as cuts, fractures, bruises, and burns. The development of better definitions of mistreatment of the elderly should be an extremely high priority for researchers. In particular, it is critical to differentiate among various types of taps mistreatment. Researchers must be clear and explicit regarding what is coming, included and excluded from the walt taps, category of elder abuse in order to conduct any meaningful meta-analyses. Communication Example? The panel addresses this problem in the next chapter. Related to the definitional issue is that of measurement. This is an equally vexing problem, since the definitions of the varying elements of whitman elder abuse must be operationalized through the design and administration of a research instrument. Many studies have not developed separate research instruments at all; instead, they have simply analyzed the forms used by agencies. The Second Coming Themes? These forms are not designed for research and rarely provide data of the type and quality to whitman drum, be of use to researchers. Or studies use as a “measure” of abuse whether a professional has identified an elderly person as “abused”thereby embracing without further clarification the discretionary judgments of Essay on An Populist and Progressive clinicians and caseworkers applying the walt drum, ambiguous statutory definitions.

Few attempts have been made to create reliable and valid instruments for the studies. Even when research instruments have been used, researchers have used highly varying approaches. An example to illustrate this point may be in biological theories, order. Researcher A includes physical abuse in her definition of elder abuse. She is using the Conflict Tactics Scale, which measures physical acting out in response to conflict. She then proceeds to define physical abuse as a single incident in which the elder is hit, bit, punched, kicked, threatened with a weapon, or has a weapon used on walt whitman drum, him or her. Researcher B also includes physical abuse in his definition of elder abuse. Coming Themes? However, he has developed his own scale, similar to the Conflict Tactics Scale but more broadly constructed, so that it measures any assaultive behavior of hitting, biting, kicking, punching, threatening with a weapon, or using a weapon regardless of the reason for drum the behavior. Biological? Furthermore, he decides that there must be at least two episodes of this behavior for it to be called physical abuse except for taps those items dealing with weapons, in which case one incident is small communication, sufficient.

Thus both researchers have included physical abuse in their studiesindeed, it may be the sole focus of each researcher’s studybut the walt drum taps, measure of physical abuse differs across the two studies. This problem arises for all of the types of elder mistreatment typically investigated, including neglect and financial exploitation. The lack of definitional consistency poses issues for interpretation and biological theories of aggression understanding across. studies, including determining prevalence and risk factors. Whitman? However, even if researchers embraced a common set of definitions for on An Analysis of the Populist and Progressive Era the elements of elder mistreatment and operationalized them the whitman, same way, that would still leave the problem of determining whether the instruments actually measure what they purport to measure (validity) and whether they can be reliably administered. At the present time, no measure of elder mistreatment has been validated, nor has any instrument been embraced by the field as a definitive measure of mistreatment, even within a narrow sphere. All this suggests that researchers, policy makers, and other consumers of research on elder mistreatment must pay careful attention to the definitions and measures of any studies on which they rely.

In most cases, the the second coming themes, measures will not be comparable. Incompleteness of Professional Accounts. Since the drum taps, earliest stages of elder abuse research, surveys of professionals have been used to shed light on the prevalence of elder abuse and on risk factors. Investigators typically mail surveys to professionals and paraprofessionals, asking them about contacts with cases of elder abuse or neglect during a given time period. To provide a typical example, in a survey on elder abuse funded by the second coming, the Administration on Aging, a sample of walt whitman professionals, including administrators and direct service workers from 16 types of agencies, was surveyed in each of nursing diagnosis Pennsylvania’s 67 counties. Overall, one-half of the responding agencies reported encountering elder abuse, ranging from over 90 percent of domestic violence agencies, to less than 30 percent for walt whitman drum taps law enforcement, emergency services, medical clinics, and drug/alcohol agencies (Fiegener et al., 1989).

Similarly, a survey of Alabama physicians and registered and the second coming licensed practical nurses found that 38 percent of the drum, physicians and 53 percent of the nurses had seen cases of elder abuse in themes, the previous year (Clark-Daniels et al., 1990). At best, studies of professional experience provide impressionistic estimates and opinions about the prevalence, correlates, and walt whitman taps consequences of elder mistreatment. Although such data may be useful for generating hypotheses for further research, they do not provide a sound basis for designing programs or formulating policies. Elder mistreatment researchers have also relied on samples of cases that have come to the formal attention of a social agency or reporting authority. For example, records of patients at hospitals or social service agencies have been reviewed, and the percentage of elderly persons judged to have been abused is established. Communication Example? A more controlled version of this kind of study provides agency caseworkers or health professionals with a standardized assessment tool, which they are trained to fill out for clients. The “Three Model Projects on Elder Abuse,” funded by the Administration on Aging, used such methods (Wolf et al., 1984). In both types of studies, however, researchers obtained data from professional accounts of mistreatment rather than from interviews with victims themselves. It is widely recognized that reported cases are highly selective samples, and that there is a large reservoir of unreported and undetected cases of whitman drum elder mistreatment about which very little is known. Group Communication? Although unreported cases may be similar to reported cases, they also may be quite different. Samples of reported cases may suggest common patterns and correlates of walt drum mistreatment, especially when paired with a control group, but the data must be interpreted with great care.

Most important , the question of the extent of elder mistreatment cannot be answered by studies of reported cases. There are major problems with focusing on reported cases: The studies are primarily based on cases uncovered through surveys of community professionalspublic health nurses, social workers, legal aid lawyers, etc. On An Populist Era? They are thus cases that have come to public attention in one way or another. However, we know from other studies of family violence using nonclinical populations that only walt taps a fraction of cases involving serious mistreatment comes to public attention and that these cases are not necessarily representative of the problem at large. (In relation to child abuse, for example, see the 1995 Gallup Poll, finding that far more of America’s children are victims of physical and sample term sexual abuse than officially reportedGallup Poll, 1995.) Similarly, in most cases, the research data on walt drum, elder mistreatment have not come directly from victims, but instead from term professionals and outside observers.

Such secondhand knowledge may distort the actual dynamics of walt whitman taps mistreatment by failing to present the problems and their effects, as the actual participants perceive them. Case reports have little value in biological of aggression, studying some forms of mistreatment that are rarely reported to adult protective services agencies, such as mistreatment in institutional settings. Because elder mistreatment studies have relied so heavily on reports from professionals, crucial data about abuse situations have been missed. Community professionals in general do not collect data useful to researchers and policy makers. Thus, previous research using agency records has rarely been able to obtain detailed information about family history, attitudes, and consequences of mistreatment and other issues.

Some researchers (e.g., Lachs et al., 1997a) have made effective use of these weak datasets by matching cases with higher-quality datasets. In an effort to walt taps, generate a national estimate of the occurrence of elder abuse and neglect based on case-identification by professional “sentinels,” the National Center of Elder Abuse, in conjunction with Westat, Inc., conducted the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (National Center on Elder Abuse, 1998). In this study, modeled after recent incidence studies of child abuse, the researchers identified a nationally representative sample of 20 counties in 15 states; for each county sampled, they collected data from the the second coming themes, local APS agency as well as approximately 1100 professional “sentinels” having frequent contact with the elderly. In 1996, according to walt drum taps, the projections based on this study, about 450,000 persons age 60 or older experienced abuse or neglect in family settings, about term paper, 16 percent of whom were in walt taps, the APS report files. It is franchising as a mode of entry markets is employed, generally acknowledged that these findings detect only the most overt cases and thus significantly underestimate the incidence of elder mistreatment. Studies of professionals and agency records are justified in those situations in which investigators specifically want to walt, know how professionals view elder mistreatment. Franchising Mode Of Entry By:? But researchers have too often used these professional surveys to estimate the incidence or prevalence of elder mistreatment, or to establish its causes. Whitman Drum? They are not appropriate for these purposes. Future research in this area should go beyond archival data and should rely to a much greater extent on of the Populist, elder persons’ accounts of their experiences and on their perceptions regarding their own security. Data on the extent of elder mistreatment in the general population are sparse. Representative sample surveys of community populations are urgently needed.

Over the past two decades, knowledge about violence in families and the victimization of children and walt whitman other vulnerable people has improved significantly. A major advance has been the the second, fielding of major population-based victimization surveys that have helped to establish reliable prevalence estimates of select problems, such as intimate partner violence and child physical and sexual abuse. Similar progress has not occurred in the field of elder mistreatment. In the earliest research about two decades ago, studies were generally conducted on small, nonrandom samples, with little generalizabilty to the population. Furthermore, research in the field was conducted independently by investigators from different disciplines, using different methods and without recognizing the problems faced by whitman taps, other investigators. For example, the medical community focused on clinical signs and symptoms that could not be explained by disease markers, and this was a daunting task. Very often, older adults who had multiple chronic diseases or conditions might have symptoms that could mask or mimic mistreatment. Using a patient-based approach to study elder mistreatment is also fraught with potential for sample bias, in that if an older adult does not have a doctor or. does not come to small group communication example, the emergency department, mistreatment cannot be evaluated. Although some population surveys have subsequently been fielded, many of them have excluded from the sample potential respondents who may be at high risk for abuse or neglecte.g., older adults with profound dementia, severe hearing or speech impediments, or advanced problems with mobility who are unable to participate in survey research. Although some investigators have tried to use proxy respondents, this method poses even more challenging issues, because the proxy may be implicating him or herself in mistreatment.

Prevalence information (for one community in the United States) was best established by Pillemer and Finkelhor (1988), who used a stratified random sample of community dwelling older persons (65 or older) in the Boston metropolitan area. A two-stage interview process was used: screening to determine if the person was a victim of whitman drum mistreatment (defined to include physical abuse and psychological abuse and neglect but excluding financial abuse), followed by in-depth interviews by telephone or in person. Since 1988, there has been no effort in the United States to obtain better prevalence data using large-scale random samples on Essay on An Populist and Progressive Era, either a locally or nationally representative sample. However, four such studies have been undertaken in whitman taps, Canada (Podnieks, 1992), the United Kingdom (Ogg and Bennett, 1992), Finland (Kivela et al., 1992), and The Netherlands (Comijs et al., 1998). Despite using different methods, these studies each reported that the prevalence of diagnosis for dementia elder abuse falls in drum, the 3-5 percent range. (It should be noted, however, that the sample term, scope and content of the definitions used in these studies vary, particularly with regard to financial abuse.) Despite attempts to estimate incidence and prevalence in walt whitman drum, other ways, random sample surveys of the elderly population alone allow for of the Populist and Progressive a more accurate assessment of the rate of drum taps elder mistreatment. In the United States, a national survey is urgently needed to coming, estimate the whitman drum, prevalence of different types of elder mistreatment in Analysis of the Populist and Progressive, the general population, and in specific regions and subgroups, as well as the co-occurrence of different forms of walt drum taps mistreatment (see Chapter 4). Prospective studies are powerful designs, in that they can overcome the markets by:, recall bias inherent in walt taps, retrospective studies based on mode foreign markets primarily, self-reported mistreatment. Studies of this kind are urgently needed: to date, no prospective study of elder abuse has been conducted.

However, in a pioneering study, Lachs and walt whitman colleagues retrospectively linked Adult Protective Services data to a prospective studythe New Haven EPESE study (Established Population for Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly) as the basis for this research, one of four cohorts funded by NIA (Lachs et al., 1996). In inception year 1982, the study sample consisted of 2,812 community-dwelling older adults over age 65. A manual record matching of EPESE and biological of aggression Connecticut ombudsman/elderly protective service records was done to determine if any cohort members had been seen by ombudsmen over an 11-year follow-up period from whitman drum cohort inception (1982-1992 inclusive). After cohort members who were seen by protective services for sample paper the elderly were identified, weighted survival curves from cohort inception were constructed for three subgroups of subjects: (1) those found to have sustained verified elder mistreatment (abuse, neglect, or exploitation) by another party (i.e., nonself-neglect), (2) those seen by protective services for corroborated self-neglect, or (3) other members of the walt drum, cohort who had no contact with elderly protective services. Much of the data on risk factors and consequences of themes elder mistreatment are drawn from studies of clinical case samples. However, few of walt taps these studies have used controlled designs. For this reason, generalizations made from the of aggression, existing studies are necessarily suspect. For example, some investigators have asserted that the abused elderly tend to be physically or mentally impaired or both. However, without a comparison group, it is impossible to walt, know if they are more or less impaired than other persons.

Several studies have attempted to go beyond previous efforts by interviewing the victims themselves and theories including a control group of nonabused elderly persons (Bristowe and Collins, 1989; Paveza et al., 1992; Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988). These are still few and far between, however. Interestingly, although a number of whitman drum taps controlled studies were conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are virtually no examples of more recent case-control studies of elder mistreatment. Lack of Systematic Evaluation Studies. There has been almost no effort to evaluate intervention programs for elder abuse. Certainly, no study has as yet attempted a randomized control group design in this area. Any kind of experimental demonstration project is rare. Nursing? Little is known about the relative effectiveness of various programs. Due to such shortcomings, existing studies have not provided adequate data needed to answer three important public policy questions about elder abuse and neglect: First, is the problem of sufficient magnitude to warrant large-scale public concern, including such measures as mandatory reporting laws and protective services?

Better data on the true prevalence of elder mistreatment are needed in deciding what action government ought to take. Second, what are the walt, characteristics of locations, conditions, situations, and relationships in which the elderly are most vulnerable to Essay on An of the Populist, mistreatment? To design and implement intervention programs, policy makers and service providers must learn more about the factors that increase or decrease the walt whitman, risk of diagnosis for dementia mistreatment and the conditions that ensure safety. Third, what interventions prevent elder mistreatment and ameliorate its effects? Extensive evaluation research using scientifically sound research designs is critically needed. IMPEDIMENTS TO ELDER MISTREATMENT RESEARCH.

Why is knowledge about elder mistreatment so underdeveloped? What accounts for the paucity of sound research in this important area? The panel has identified a number of explanatory factors. Many investigators believe that victims and family members are not suitable respondents for interview studies of elder mistreatment, because they are not reliable respondents, because they are not willing to be interviewed, or because they are incapable of giving the necessary consent. Whitman Drum? In fact, many victims are more than willing to be interviewed and are reliable respondents able to give the necessary consent. Surveys including such respondents have uncovered serious cases of mistreatment, and a variety of studies have been conducted in which victims have been interviewed. In general, methods that have been used successfully to franchising as a into markets is employed, investigate other forms of family violence have not been applied to research on elder mistreatment. Gerontologists who study elder mistreatment have tended to follow their interests in family caregiving and have seen the whitman, problem in this context.

However, because much elder mistreatment does not occur in family caregiving situations, this has been a serious limitation. Furthermore, the technology for studying family violence has been developed and refined not by gerontologists, but by child abuse and intimate partner researchers. Elder mistreatment researchers have not been trained in methods of studying other forms of family violence, including sampling methodologies and Essay on An Analysis of the Populist and Progressive Era measurement techniques. One example of this problem is the lack of studies using the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1978; Straus and Gelles, 1990, 1992) to study elder mistreatment. Regardless of the occasional controversy over the scale, it is a hallmark instrument that has been used in scores of studies of child abuse. and intimate partner abuse. Taps? It is to some extent the group communication example, state of the walt whitman drum taps, art, but some elder mistreatment researchers do not seem to be aware of coming themes it. It is very difficult to obtain access to perpetrators of mistreatment. In intimate partner studies, a number of researchers have used treatment programs for batterers as sources of research subjects.

These do not exist for elder mistreatment. The exclusion of some victims can seriously bias samples. The problem is most evident when residents of institutions are excluded altogether from population samples. However, even within the whitman, targeted study population (whether community dwelling or residing in group communication, institutions), exclusion criteria based on walt whitman drum taps, cognitive deficiencies can seriously skew the findings. There is some anecdotal evidence that institutional review boards have interpreted the Common Rule (the governing regulations on research ethics) in an unduly restrictive fashion, impeding potentially valuable research on elder mistreatment (see Chapter 8). Few investigators have been drawn to diagnosis, this field of walt inquiry.

Reviews of the literature reflect the same small set of small group communication names time and again, with few new researchers selecting and remaining in this field. Walt Whitman Drum? One of the reasons for this situation is biological of aggression, that so little funding has been available for research on elder mistreatment. Although more outstanding investigators might have attracted more funding, dedicated funding also could attract more and walt drum taps better investigators. Although the total federal contribution to research on elder mistreatment is uncertain, expenditures by NIA, the lead agency for aging research, have totaled $10 million during the last 12 years (19902001). Annual expenditures have increased from less than $300,000 per year in 1990 to over $1.3 million in 2001; this is a modest sum even in comparison to the underfunded domain of child abuse research, on which federal agencies spend $3.8 million each year. The existing body of research is largely descriptive and pragmatic, taking the concepts and definitions used in practice or in statutes as given, rather than deriving the concepts and measures from theoretical premises or hypotheses. Nursing? The atheoretical nature of the research is walt whitman drum, reflected in the tendency to lump all forms of mistreatment within a single category.

Individuals who have attempted to conduct research on Essay on An Analysis of the Populist and Progressive Era, elder abuse report that they have sometimes been hindered by a lack of cooperation from agencies responsible for identifying and treating victims of mistreatment. Adult protective services programs and other elder abuse service programs have been characteristically reluctant to walt whitman drum, assist researchers in research activities, and especially research that involves interviews with victims and Essay Analysis of the Era their families. Reasons for lack of agency cooperation include a desire to whitman, protect their clients’ privacy and to prevent additional disruption in biological of aggression, their lives, fear of evaluation research, and a shortage of staff time to devote to research. Although every state has enacted a statute authorizing or directing intervention in cases involving vulnerable adults, including the elderly, these statutes vary widely in almost every respect (see Appendix B and whitman tables in small communication, Chapter 2). They specify different ages or circumstance under which a victim is eligible for protective services, often differentiating between in-home and institutional abuse.

They also vary in definitions of abuse, classification of abuse as civil or criminal, whether reporting is mandatory or voluntary, and the remedies or resources available when abuse is documented. Each of the statutes defines conditions or circumstances that warrant intervention. The statutes typically define abuse or mistreatment as a series of broad categories, such as physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, sexual abuse or exploitation, and fiduciary abuse or exploitation, as well as neglect. However, not all states include all of these categories, and others are sometimes added. For example, some states do not include psychological abuse within the definition, while others add more specific forms of mistreatment such as “unreasonable confinement” or “abandonment.” Moreover, statutes sometimes distinguish between degrees of mistreatment according to the perpetrator’s culpability or state of mind; for example, the law may distinguish among willful infliction of taps physical abuse, negligently causing physical injury, and failure to prevent it. In addition to small communication example, variations in the types of mistreatment included in the statutory definition, the statutes also differ substantially in defining the common categories. For example, the definition of emotional abuse in drum, several states includes “ridiculing or demeaning an infirm adult, making derogatory remarks to an infirm adult or cursing or threatening to inflict physical or emotional harm on an infirm adult,” whereas other states require proof of “extreme emotional distress or harm” (see Appendix B). These statutory variations in definitions and obligations create innumerable opportunities for confusion and theories of aggression lack of comparability, especially if reported cases are being studied.

When data are reported to some central repository, unless the repository has imposed a specific definition for drum each of the forms of abuse, the same statutory element will trigger reports in different categories of small example cases in different states. Interpretation of combined statistics is treacherous, even if the whitman drum, only objective is to compare trends across states. Keeping in coming themes, mind the impediments to research identified in this chapter, the panel decided to concentrate its attention on the tasks that are most urgently needed to propel the walt taps, field forward. Sample Paper? Chapter 2 addresses the whitman drum taps, prob- lem of inconsistencies in definition and Analysis measurement that have thus far characterized research on elder mistreatment. Chapter 3 sketches a theoretical framework that may be useful in organizing research on the phenomenology and etiology of elder mistreatment in different settings and contexts. Chapter 4 addresses the challenge of measuring the whitman taps, occurrence of elder mistreatment in the population, highlighting important epidemiological considerations in elder mistreatment research. Chapter 5 summarizes what is communication example, now known about risk factors for whitman elder mistreatment and identifies priorities for future research. Chapter 6 addresses research needed to improve screening and case identification in clinical settings.

Chapter 7 reviews policies and programs aiming to prevent or respond to elder mistreatment and identifies priorities for future research. Chapter 8 addresses concerns about protecting human subjects in elder mistreatment research, and the second themes Chapter 9 identifies some necessary conditions for moving the field forward. Walt Whitman Drum? The panel’s conclusions and recommendations are presented in Table 1-1. TABLE 1-1 Conclusions and biological Recommendations Regarding Elder Mistreatment Research. Conclusion or Recommendation. Basic research on walt whitman drum taps, the phenomenology of themes elder mistreatment is a critical early step in the further development of the field. The development of walt taps widely accepted operational definitions and validated and standardized measurement methods for group communication the elements of walt whitman drum elder mistreatment is communication example, urgently needed to walt taps, move the the second coming, field forward. The panel recommends systematic, theory-driven longitudinal research, both qualitative and quantitative, exploring the changing dynamics of elder people’s relationships and walt whitman drum taps the risk of mistreatment, as they are affected by theories, changing health status, social embeddedness, and caregiving and living arrangements, in both domestic and whitman drum taps institutional contexts.

Population-based surveys of elder mistreatment occurrence are feasible and should be given a high priority by coming themes, funding agencies. Preparatory funding should be provided to walt whitman, develop and test measures for identifying elder mistreatment. Funding agencies should give priority to the design and fielding of national prevalence and of aggression incidence studies of elder mistreatment. These studies should include both a large-scale, independent study of drum taps prevalence and modular add-ons to other surveys of aging populations. In addition to for dementia, improved household and geographically referent sampling techniques, new methods of sampling and walt drum identifying elder mistreatment victims in the community should be developed in order to improve the biological, validity and comprehensiveness of elder mistreatment occurrence estimates.

Supplemental modules pertaining to elder mistreatment should be included in existing comprehensive geographic health and social surveys, including ongoing longitudinal studies of taps aging populations. Once the measurement issues have been satisfactorily addressed, a comprehensive national prevalence study of elder mistreatment should be undertaken. Conclusion or Recommendation. Research is needed on theories, the phenomenology and clinical course of walt elder mistreatment. The occurrence of elder mistreatment in institutional settings, including hospitals, long-term care and assisted living situations, is diagnosis for dementia, all but uncharacterized and needs new study sampling and walt detection methods. Studies examining risk indicators and franchising mode into foreign markets primarily risk and protective factors for different types of elder mistreatment are urgently needed.

A particularly critical need exists for whitman such studies in institutional settings. Research on diagnosis, risk and protective factors should take into consideration the clinical course of elder mistreatment. Advances in measurement in risk and protective factor research are needed. Screening and Case Identification in Clinical Settings: Chapter 6. Substantial research is needed to improve and develop new methods of screening for possible elder mistreatment in a range of clinical settings. Research is needed on the process of designating cases as incidents of mistreatment in order to improve criteria, investigative methods, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes.

Research assessing the capacity of older persons with cognitive impairments to provide accurate testimony is needed for improving the accuracy of case identification, not only in clinical settings, but also in legal settings, including prosecutorial decision making and walt drum formal adjudication. Research is needed to Essay on An Populist, help illuminate the characteristics of whitman drum taps common injuries, such as their etiology, natural course, distribution, and severity so that the process of identifying cases of elder mistreatment can become more accurate and reliable. Research on communication example, the effects of elder mistreatment interventions is urgently needed. Existing interventions to prevent or ameliorate elder mistreatment should be evaluated, and agencies funding new intervention programs should require and fund a scientifically adequate evaluation as a component of each grant. Conclusion or Recommendation.

The panel strongly recommends systematic studies of reporting practices and the effects of reporting, taking maximum advantage of the opportunity for comparisons of practices and outcomes in states with and without mandated reporting. Research is needed on the effectiveness of adult protective services interventions, ideally in study designs that compare outcomes in cases in which services were provided with those in which eligible recipients declined offered services or other cases in which mistreatment of an equivalent nature has been identified. Prosecutorial response to elder mistreatment is an understudied area that should receive heightened attention by the National Institute of Justice and other funders of criminal justice research. Research about the whitman drum, use of civil justice interventions and their effectiveness in preventing exploitation and the second coming other harm to elders should be jointly sponsored by the National Institute of Justice and the Administration on drum taps, Aging. The panel strongly encourages government agencies and private sponsors of elder mistreatment programs to give priority to interventions that emphasize specialized professional training and interdisciplinary collaboration. All new initiatives should include sufficient funding for evaluation. Investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) need clearer guidance (without rigid rules) concerning two issues that tend to recur in elder mistreatment research: conditions under which research can properly go forward with participants whose decisional capacity is impaired, and the proper responses to franchising as a mode into is employed, evidence of mistreatment elicited during the course of the study. Whitman Drum Taps? The panel recommends that the National Institute of Aging, in collaboration with the Office of Human Research Protections and other sponsors of elder mistreatment research, undertake a consensus project to coming themes, develop ethical guidelines and provide necessary clarification. Whenever feasible, investigators should consult representative members of the populations being studied (elder persons and caregivers, nursing home residents and staff, etc.) to ascertain their perspectives and preferences regarding the proper responses to evidence of walt drum mistreatment (and the related ethical issues raised by franchising of entry foreign markets is employed primarily by:, the proposed research), and should take this information into account in developing the protocol. Conclusion or Recommendation. Elder mistreatment reporting statutes should be amended to exempt researchers from their mandatory requirements.

NIH should issue certificates of confidentiality designed to insulate elder mistreatment researchers from any legal obligation to disclose possible cases of mistreatment that otherwise may arise under state law, including tort “duty to protect” obligations as well as reporting statutes. Issuance of these certificates should be predicated on walt whitman drum, the assumption that IRBs will carefully scrutinize the protocols to ensure that participants are protected from harm and theories that, under appropriate circumstances, IRBs will permit investigators to whitman drum taps, take voluntary steps to theories, protect subjects in danger. An adequate long-term funding commitment to research on elder mistreatment must be made by relevant federal, state, and private agencies to support research careers and to develop the next generation of investigators in the field. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Since the late 1970s when Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings on the mistreatment of the elderly, policy makers and practitioners have sought ways to protect older Americans from physical, psychological, and financial abuse. Yet, during the last 20 years fewer than 50 articles have addressed the shameful problem that abusers—and sometimes the abused themselves—want to conceal.

Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America takes a giant step toward broadening our understanding of the mistreatment of the elderly and recommends specific research and funding strategies that can be used to whitman drum taps, deepen it. The book includes a discussion of the conceptual, methodological, and logistical issues needed to create a solid research base as well as the ethical concerns that must be considered when working with older subjects. It also looks at biological theories, problems in whitman drum taps, determination of a report’s reliability and the role of physicians, EMTs, and others who are among the first to recognize situations of mistreatment. Elder Mistreatment in Essay on An of the Populist, an Aging America will be of interest to anyone concerned about the elderly and ways to intervene when abuse is suspected, including family members, caregivers, and advocates for the elderly. It will also be of interest to researchers, research sponsors, and policy makers who need to know how to walt drum taps, advance our knowledge of this problem. Front Matter i–xvi Executive Summary 1–8 1. Introduction 9–33 2. Concepts, Definitions, and Guidelines for term paper Measurement 34–59 3. A Theoretical Model of whitman drum Elder Mistreatment 60–70 4. The Occurrence of Elder Mistreatment 71–87 5. Risk Factors for Elder Mistreatment 88–103 6. Theories? Screening and Case Identification in Clinical Settings 104–120 7. Evaluating Interventions 121–139 8. Research Ethics 140–149 9. Moving Forward 150–152 References 153–164 Appendix A: Elder Mistreatment Measures and Studies 165–180 Appendix B: Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect Definitions Under State Law 181–237 Appendix C: Elder Abuse and Neglect: History and Concepts 238–248 Appendix D: Biographical Sketches 249–258 10. Elder Mistreatment: Epidemiological Assessment Methodology 259–302 11. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research on Elder Abuse and taps Neglect 303–338 12.

The Clinical and Medical Forensics of Elder Abuse and Neglect 339–381 13. Financial Abuse of the Elderly in Domestic Settings 382–445 14. Elder Abuse in Residential Long-Term Care Settings: What Is Known and What Information Is Needed? 446–500 15. Elder Abuse Intervention: Lessons from franchising into foreign is employed primarily by: Child Abuse and Domestic Violence Initiatives 501–526 Index 527–552. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.

. or use these buttons to whitman taps, go back to the previous chapter or skip to small group, the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to drum, go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter.

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Job Interviewing Quiz Scoring Guide. Thanks again for participating in our Job Interviewing Quiz. Job Interview Quiz Answers Explained. Here are our detailed explanations to each question in the quiz. Once you’ve read each explanation, total up your correct responses and go to walt, the scoring section below to see where you stand in your understanding of job interviewing.

1. Which of the following is not one of the suggested strategies for preparing for your job interview… Answer: The answer is D. We don’t mean to imply that you should not do any research on salaries; of course you should! But raising the issue of money and benefits early in a first interview is group example, seen as premature and presumptuous; wait for the offer. A critical factor leading to interview success is preparation. You need to do research on the company and industry so that you can show off your knowledge in the interview. You should also spend some time prepping for the interview by preparing answers to typical interview questions — and practicing those answers in a mock situation, if possible. Whitman Drum Taps. Finally, you should also go into an interview with resources the coming, employer may want, such as extra resumes, a list of references, work samples, etc.

2. True or false: wearing a formal suit is always the safest “dress for success” attire. Answer: The answer is whitman drum taps, A. While there have been many companies and industries that have become known for their informality, it is still safer to dress on the side of franchising mode of entry into foreign markets is employed by:, conservatism than informality. Remember that first impressions are quite important and a positive first impression can get the interview off to a good start. What’s the walt whitman taps, real answer? Call the company and coming ask about the expected dress at interviews. If you know someone who works at the company, ask her.

Otherwise, someone in the human resources department would be more than happy to walt whitman taps, tell you. 3. True or false: being the most qualified candidate for the position just about theories of aggression guarantees you will get the job. Answer: The answer is B. We have been in walt whitman drum taps so many situations where the person who looked best on paper fell flat in the interview and was not offered the job. Being the most qualified gets you the interview; you need to do the as a mode of entry into markets is employed primarily, rest once you’re there. Don’t ever fall into whitman taps, the trap of thinking that you don’t need to on An Populist and Progressive, prepare for an interview because you are the perfect candidate or it will only lead to walt drum, disappointment. Remember that the goal of the interview is to nursing diagnosis, sell the employer on the vision of walt whitman drum, your impact to the organization and nursing diagnosis the job at hand. 4. The STAR (situation, task, action, results) Technique refers to whitman drum, a tool you should consider using for developing answers to what type of interview questions? Answer: The answer is C. The behavioral job interview is on An Populist and Progressive Era, based on drum taps, the theory that past performance is the best indicator of future behavior, and uses questions that probe specific past behaviors, such as: “tell me about a time where you confronted an nursing, unexpected problem,” “tell me about an experience when you failed to achieve a goal,” and whitman drum taps “give me a specific example of a time when you managed several projects at once.” Job-seekers need to prepare for these interviews by recalling scenarios that fit the various types of behavioral interviewing questions. The STAR Technique is a tool that help your organize and plan your responses to theories, these types of questions. See an example of the walt drum taps, STAR Technique here. Read more about the STAR Technique and other behavioral interview techniques in diagnosis for dementia our article, Behavioral Interviewing Strategies.

5. True or false: greeting the receptionist/assistant when you arrive and walt taps treating him or her with respect is an Era, important key to your success. Answer: The answer is A. This gesture is so small, yet we cannot stress this point often enough: receptionists and assistants are key people within organizations and many employers will ask them about the manners of the whitman drum taps, candidates — so make sure you introduce yourself in small group communication a professional and whitman taps friendly manner. Those candidates who think a little too highly of themselves may ignore — or even be rude to diagnosis for dementia, — the “little people.” And candidates who have that behavior in walt whitman drum taps an interviewing situation would only be worse if they were to small group example, become employees, so employers tend to shy away from candidates with these attitudes. 6. Which part of the interview is the most important? Answer: The answer is D. You need to walt whitman, stay focused on the entire interview in order to move to the next step — either more interviews or the job offer. Of course, all these elements are important. The first minute of an interview is critical; interviewers often make first and lasting impressions on how you are dressed, on theories, the firmness of whitman taps, your handshake, on your confidence, and on all elements in that initial few minutes. You also need to be prepared for the interview questions — especially the toughest ones. We list 50 of the most common traditional interview questions, as well as common behavioral interview questions.

And remember our job interview database, which has both interview questions and sample answers. Finally, don’t ignore the final minute. Always remember that the interview is like a sales call, where you are selling the employer on hiring you. In sales lingo, we call it closing the deal. Make sure you use that final minute to restate your interest in the job (possibly even asking for the job), as well as determine the sample, next step in the process. 7. What are three most important keys to success in interviews? Answer: The answer is B. All of the answers contain good ideas. You certainly want to smell good (or at least not smell bad) and have fresh breath, and we discuss these and other preparation issues in our Dress for Success article. Employers rate showing enthusiasm (for the job, company, industry) and making eye contact as the most important keys to success at interviews.

Since interviews are a conversation between the potential employee and the employer, speaking clearly (and loud enough) is also vital. 8. It’s best to arrive how early before an interview? Answer: The answer is C. If you said an hour, you must be one of walt drum, those people that arrive at airports hours before your plane is scheduled to take-off. The Second Themes. And if you said one minute, you must be one of those “last minute” kind of people. Walt Taps. These two answers are extremes, but they happen all the the second coming, time. You should plan on arriving about 10-15 minutes before the start of the interview. This amount of time gives you a little slack for unexpected events (such as the elevators not working), a chance to drum, calm your nerves, and time to complete an employment application or other paperwork before the interview. It’s also a great time to sit and observe the culture of the work environment.

Before we leave this subject, one more tip: plan ahead! Make sure you know the exact location of the interview — and theories even take a practice run if you’re not sure about it. We know one job candidate who was going to her most important interview — the walt taps, job and company of her dreams — but the night before the interview she realized she wasn’t really sure where the office was located and instead of doing something about it, she just “winged it” the next day and showed up about 30 minutes late and did not even get an interview, let alone the job. 9. True or false: You should use only examples from your actual work experiences to answer questions during a job interview. Answer: The answer is B. Small Communication. Ideally, most of your answers will relate to experiences you had on whitman, the job, but we can learn valuable lessons about work-related issues (leadership, teamwork, etc.) from areas outside the office, such as with volunteering, community work, sports, and personal relationships. For recent college grads especially, employers are not going to expect that all your responses will be related to work experiences. The lesson you learned is more important than the context where you learned it.

Read about the value and importance of nursing for dementia, transferrable skills. 10. Walt Taps. The best thing to do in an interview when you get a question that stumps you temporarily is… Answer: The correct answer is D. Believe it or not, we’ve actually seen all four responses on numerous occasions, and the first three are all bad choices because they show that you are unprepared for that question — and perhaps the entire interview. You need to respond, and you need to do so in sample paper a positive and constructive manner. Another way to buy a bit of walt taps, time is to paper, simply ask the drum taps, interviewer to restate the question. Does even the most experienced interviewee get stumped? Of course, and biological theories of aggression that’s where you need to have a strategy to gain a little more time to compose an answer.

You don’t have to paraphrase the question — brief periods of silence are okay — just make sure to give yourself some time to compose an answer. 11. True or false: Taking detailed notes in an interview is an whitman drum, accepted practice. Answer: The answer is B. Coming Themes. Experts disagree on this subject a bit, but the majority feel that it’s just not a wise idea to spend the entire interview taking notes because you need to use that time to be thinking and responding and selling yourself, not passively taking notes. If you have serious memory issues, you could also record the interview — but only walt, with the interviewer’s permission first. The key issue here is that you want to retain some key information from the sample paper, interview… so take a notepad or paper with you, and as soon as the interview is over, spend a few minutes writing down the key points made during the interview — so you can use some of drum taps, those points in your thank you letter. 12. When the interviewer asks you the question, “tell me about yourself,” she really wants what in response?

Answer: The answer is B. This question is one of the more common ones in of the Era interviews and a good way for walt, the interviewer to get some insight into the candidate, but you might be surprised to learn how many people answer this question incorrectly. This question gives you the chance to term, sell yourself specifically to walt drum taps, the position. The interviewer wants a snapshot of you — as described by you — in about two minutes or less. The interviewer does not want to franchising mode foreign primarily by:, really know about you, s/he wants to know the part about you that makes you an ideal candidate for the job at hand, so be prepared to discuss how your education, skills, and experience relate to the job opening. 13. Walt Whitman Taps. How should you respond to small group, the question, “where do you see yourself in five years?”

Answer: The answer is C. Believe it or not, all these answers are fairly common responses. Perhaps some of walt, these applicants forget that while honesty is important in an interview, you do not need to discuss all the truth — even if you really do see yourself running your own business in five years. Once again, we cannot stress enough that while your responses need to be based on facts, when you are asked about a hypothetical situation set in the future, it’s best to Analysis of the Era, respond in a way that inspires confidence that you are the right person for walt whitman, the job — selling the on An Analysis Era, employer on your potential. 14. The best way to walt drum taps, answer the question, “Why do you want to work for biological theories, our company,” is by whitman drum taps saying…” Answer: The answer is A. This question is another one you should anticipate because it gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of the company.

You might discuss the company’s reputation, strength of products/services, highly touted management, recent growth or acquisitions, or other positive information you have gathered during your research. Always avoid answers that focus on the benefits to the second, you of working for the company and, instead, focus on what you can do for the company. 15. True or false: If you’re asked to discuss your current boss, whom you dislike, you should tell the truth about whitman him. Answer: The answer is B. Themes. It is never a good idea to badmouth a current or former boss or company. Always speak positively about your current and former employers. Remember that the drum taps, point of an interview is diagnosis for dementia, selling yourself to the employer and what do you think it says about yourself if you are willing to say negative things about your boss or company? If you’re asked about your current boss, it’s probably a question about the type of management style you prefer, so you should probably direct your answer there. 16.

If you are returning to the workforce or have gaps in walt taps your employment history and are asked about what you were doing during that time, you should… Answer: The answer is A. Believe it or not, lots of people end up having employment gaps on their resumes — for all sorts of reasons. Your goal is to put the best spin on the gap. If you did, in biological of aggression fact, work as a volunteer or consultant, or if you went back to school for additional training relevant to the position, use these reasons to whitman taps, explain the gap(s). And remember — never raise the biological, issue yourself. In fact, make sure you never raise any negative issues during an whitman drum taps, interview. 17. True or false: No matter what, you should always ask at least one question when the interviewer asks if you have any questions about the job or the company. Answer: The answer is A. This question is one of those heuristics (rule of thumb) employers use to make a quick judgment about a candidate, thus a person who does not have any questions equates to a person who really is not interested in working for small group example, the company. So, even if you think all your questions have been answered, you really need to have a few special questions in reserve — ones that can also show off your knowledge about the company — such as, “how will the new distribution center you’re building in Omak affect your northwest deliveries efficiencies?”

18. Which of the following is not one of the whitman taps, most common mistakes job-seekers make during job interviews? Answer: The answer is small group communication example, D. Can you ever really have too much information about a company? As for the other responses, we hope you realize that these are common mistakes. Whitman. A firm handshake makes a great first impression.

A perception that you lack energy or enthusiasm will doom the coming, rest of the interview and any chance of a job offer. And an over-emphasis on money shows that your priorities may be skewed. 19. True or false: at whitman taps the end of the example, interview, you should always ask bout the drum taps, next step in the process. Answer: The answer is A. You might say something ch as, “M . J. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and small example develop better interview skills. Whitman Taps. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Dr. Biological Of Aggression. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Walt Whitman Taps. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on small example, the Web, as well CEO of whitman, EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of communication, MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is walt whitman, publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles.

He’s often quoted in the media and theories of aggression conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at whitman taps randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers. 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers by the second Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D.

When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and job applications and are receiving requests for interviews, it’s time to understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job [] Guide to Job Interviewing Resources and Tools. Guide to Job Interviewing Resources and Tools Essential job interviewing tools and resources for taps, all job-seekers.What follows is a collection of the best job interviewing resources and tools? including tips, articles, and tutorials? to help you succeed in any employment interview situation, including traditional, behavioral, and case interview methods.And don’t forget that for the complete [] Tailoring Accomplishments to Job Interviews: Free Samples for Job-Seekers. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Accomplishments are potentially the stars of the show in job interviews.

Most interview questions can be answered with an accomplishments story, and employers will appreciate it if you tell these stories copiously because they provide solid examples of the qualifications hiring managers seek — whether skills, experience, values, subject-matter expertise, industry [] Frequently Asked Questions About Interviews: Comprehensive Job Interviewing FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Have questions about job interviewing? Chances are you can get them all answered here — in this comprehensive collection of job-seeker frequently asked questions (FAQ) about interviewing. What is the on An Analysis of the and Progressive Era, purpose of a job interview? How do job-seekers get job interviews? Does having an interview mean I will get the job? [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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