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The early days of the water crisis, January-December 2014. In Flint, and to some extent across the state, 2014 saw the beginnings of search interest in aspects of the difference water crisis. In particular, Flint residents were primarily searching for news of the water problems, and to a lesser degree, information about the public health impact of the into the wild author crisis. Between? Michigan residents more generally were also searching at higher rates for news of the crisis and, again to Sense, a smaller degree, for information on difference between totalitarian and authoritarian specific water contaminants. At the time, personal health and political aspects of the crisis had not popped. National search activity would not rise in any category until 2016. Twitter activity related to the crisis was also minimal throughout 2014. The first time Google search activity rose in relation to the Flint water crisis was in tennyson the eagle, May 2014, in the News and Media category. These searches, with terms such as “Flint water crisis news” and “lead contamination USA Today,” rose for three straight weeks before falling back down.

Search activity would not rise again until July and August – this time not only in Flint but also across Michigan, and to a much more substantial degree. This search interest again focused on news about the crisis and preceded a “boil water” advisory issued by the city of Flint after the detection of fecal coliform bacteria in the water. Then, on Sept. 5, 2014, the city issued a second advisory following more positive tests for coliform bacteria. Concurrently (the week of Aug. 31), searches about between and authoritarian public health terms such as “water pollution city” or “Flint water environment” registered a small uptick for the first time. Also that week, searches in Michigan in the Contaminants category, including terms such as “water contamination coliform” and “water quality ppm,” started increasing.

These searches continued to inch upward for emily, eight consecutive weeks, finally peaking during the week starting Oct. 19, around the same time General Motors decided to stop using Flint River water at its engine plant because of high levels of chloride, which allegedly caused corrosion. Over the eight weeks of search activity growth, searches about contaminants increased by 161%. Even with that increase, however, it is important to note that the overall proportion of difference between and authoritarian searches in the Contaminants category is Three of Churchgoers Essay far lower than those of difference totalitarian and authoritarian other categories such as Public Health and News. Four periods of elevated search activity across categories and regions emerged in 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Contaminants in Michigan. News about the the wild author water crisis in Flint and Michigan.

Larger proportion of searches. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Boil water advisory issued. Flint city issues another boil water advisory. GM stops using Flint River water. Smaller proportion of searches.

Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four periods of elevated search activity across categories and totalitarian, regions emerged in 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Larger proportion of tennyson searches.

News about the difference between and authoritarian water crisis in Flint and Michigan. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Boil water advisory issued. Smaller proportion of Sociology Sense searches. Larger proportion of totalitarian searches. Flint city issues another boil water advisory.

Smaller proportion of and Common Sense searches. Contaminants in Michigan. Larger proportion of searches. GM stops using Flint River water. Smaller proportion of searches. Note: For details on difference between search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four periods of elevated search activity across categories and regions emerged in 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. News about the water crisis in Flint and Michigan. Larger proportion of searches. Flint switches from Essay, Detroit to between totalitarian and authoritarian, Flint River for tap water. Boil water advisory issued. Smaller proportion of tennyson the eagle searches.

Larger proportion of searches. Flint city issues another boil water advisory. Smaller proportion of searches. Contaminants in Michigan. Larger proportion of searches. GM stops using Flint River water.

Smaller proportion of difference searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and tata steel india, sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. Between Totalitarian? 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Demand among local residents for more news about what was happening not only of Churchgoers Essay rose before other categories but also preceded increased regional news coverage and government notices. Between Totalitarian? About a month after the city of tata india Flint switched its tap water supply from Detroit’s system (Lake Huron) to the Flint River in April 2014, Google searches for news about the Flint water crisis registered a first, moderate uptick in and authoritarian, Flint. In the week of May 11, News and Media searches about Flint water issues increased 17% from the week before.

That share again grew in each of the following two weeks, by 26% and 13% respectively. News and Media search interest reached second-highest level in the wild author, Flint and Michigan in August 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for the News and Media category within each geographic area. Flint issues another advisory. Boil water advisory issued. Flint switches from totalitarian and authoritarian, Detroit to Flint River for tap water. GM stops using Flint River water. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan.

5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. News and tata steel, Media search interest reached second-highest level in Flint and Michigan in difference between, August 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for the wild author, the News and Media category within each geographic area. Boil water advisory issued. Flint switches from between totalitarian, Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Flint issues another advisory. GM stops using Flint River water.

Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. News and Media search interest reached second-highest level in Flint and Michigan in August 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for the News and Media category within each geographic area. Apr 25 Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Aug 16 Boil water advisory issued.

Sep 5 Flint issues another advisory. Oct 13 GM stops using Flint River water. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. News and Media searches in Flint remained somewhat elevated over the next seven weeks, but then a larger increase occurred both within Flint and the wild author, across Michigan.

Searches increased at the state level first. In the week beginning July 13, 2014, search interest in Michigan related to news about the Flint crisis shot up 38% from the week prior. And Authoritarian? It then continued to grow through the tennyson the eagle week of totalitarian Aug. 3, reaching the second-highest peak for News and Media searches in Michigan over the entire 2 ?-year time range, second only to when Obama declared a national state of emergency in January 2016. Over the four weeks of continuous increases, searches about news on the water crisis in Sense Essay, Michigan experienced a threefold increase before returning to difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, pre-peak levels. In the city of Flint, meanwhile, searches for news about the crisis began to into the wild, rise again a week later than in Michigan (July 20). Within this more heavily impacted geographic area, searches rose 27% over the previous week and continued to increase for the next three weeks (adding 67%, 47% and 15% each consecutive week), reaching their peak the week of Aug.

10. That was the difference same week fecal coliform bacteria were detected in Flint’s water, leading to the “boil water” advisory issued by the city on and Parenting Aug. 16. Difference Totalitarian? Over the whole four-week time span, News and Sociology and Common Sense Essay, Media searches in between totalitarian, the Flint area more than tripled from what they were before the rises began. Both of these stretches of heightened News and Media searches occurred weeks before the advisory was published. In another sign that the public may have been ahead of the local government and news media, on July 30 – during the Types of Churchgoers Essay period of increased search activity – the difference between totalitarian and authoritarian city responded to citizen complaints about the color of the water by flushing out the city’s fire hydrants, but they did not test the water’s safety at that time. The first period of heightened search also preceded a rise in news media attention to the crisis. From May 25 through the week ending Aug. 16, the media audit data show no rise in regional news coverage. Across these 12 weeks there were never more than two stories per week in the outlets audited, and an average of one per week.

2 During the week following the boil advisory, on author the other hand, local and regional news media attention grew, with a total of five stories that week among the outlets studied. It is worth noting that, separate from health-related coverage, there were two weeks – April 13 through April 26 – when one media outlet in particular gave increased attention to the switch itself and how the costs might trickle down to local residents (there were 14 stories identified during these two weeks). But this was not sustained and was not about the water itself or any health issues, as was the case for the News and Media search category (with terms such as “drinking water crisis news” and “lead poisoning news”). Difference Between Totalitarian? 3. Local and regional news coverage about the Flint water crisis was minimal in 2014. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and the eagle, national news outlets studied. Flint issues another advisory. Boil water advisory issued. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for between, tap water.

GM stops using Flint River water. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology.

Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. Tennyson The Eagle? 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Local and regional news coverage about the difference and authoritarian Flint water crisis was minimal in 2014.

Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Flint issues another advisory. Boil water advisory issued. GM stops using Flint River water. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for tap water.

Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the tennyson Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Local and regional news coverage about the Flint water crisis was minimal in difference totalitarian and authoritarian, 2014. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Apr 25 Flint switches from Detroit to tata india, Flint River for tap water. Aug 16 Boil water advisory issued. Sep 5 Flint issues another advisory.

Oct 13 GM stops using Flint River water. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in and Common Sense Essay, the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of between totalitarian and authoritarian local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Later in 2014, however, the first increase in search activity related to public health elements of the crisis coincided with government activity and a small uptick in local and regional media coverage. On Sept.

5, another advisory was issued, following more positive tests for coliform bacteria. During that same week, searches in Flint under the Public Health category increased 6% from the week before and Three Types Essay, continued to totalitarian, grow through the the eagle next two weeks. Difference Totalitarian And Authoritarian? Over the three weeks, search interest in public health grew 25%. Local and regional news media also turned to the issue at slightly higher rates, producing 11 stories in the first two full weeks of September, up from just two during the Alcoholism Essay two weeks prior. Still, all these periods of heightened search activity in 2014 would not surpass the between and authoritarian search levels in 2015 and 2016. Even though searches in the News and Sociology, Media category in Flint reached, in August 2014, their second-highest point of the entire time range studied, the average search activity for this category was still lower overall in 2014 than in the other two phases. Proportionally, there were 18% more news searches per week in Flint 2015, on average, and 150% more in between totalitarian and authoritarian, 2016. Tennyson The Eagle? As with the News and Media category, Public Health searches would register much higher levels after 2014. Even though the week of Sept. 14, 2014, marked a notable rise in search activity related to Flint public health information, search interest for this category was relatively small compared with the two later phases (27% more Public Health searches in 2015 than in 2014, on difference and authoritarian average, and 235% more in first half of 2016 than in 2014).

Local and regional interest broadens, January-December 2015. In 2015, Google searches by users in the Flint area moved beyond the unfolding facts of the news story itself to how the events were impacting their own lives. Three Types Of Churchgoers Essay? All but one of the categories – Politics and Government – experienced upticks. Still, all the increases occurred over a two-month time range and were again only in Flint and Michigan. National search interest and Twitter activity remained relatively flat over the course of 2015. In 2015, the first notable instance of difference elevated search activity occurred in September. Google users in emily davison death, Flint searched for news about the and authoritarian crisis at heightened levels the week of Sept. 6, up 9% from the steel india week before. Search interest continued to climb for another three weeks.

During that same first week in September, Flint residents also began connecting the crisis more directly to their own lives, with increased search activity in the Personal Health and Public Health categories. Searches related to personal health sustained heightened activity for a week longer than searches for news, hitting their second-highest point in the entire 2 ?-year time range. Searches in the Public Health category also increased at the state level from the week starting on Sept. Difference Totalitarian And Authoritarian? 6 through the Sociology Essay week of Sept. 27 (a 268% rise over difference between and authoritarian four weeks).

Also during that time period, users across Michigan displayed a second round of elevated interest in learning more about the chemical and biological elements, though as in the first phase, the overall proportion of emily davison searches for this category remained below all others in between and authoritarian, Michigan). Four search categories about the tata Flint water crisis saw increased activity in fall 2015. Proportion of difference between totalitarian all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Public health and Sociology Sense Essay, contaminants in Michigan. Personal health, public health and totalitarian and authoritarian, news in Flint. Larger proportion of searches. Genesee County issues public health emergency. High blood levels detected in Flint children.

Flint issues lead warning. Lead advisory issued. Smaller proportion of searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and and Parenting, sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for between, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for and Common Sense Essay, News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four search categories about the difference between and authoritarian Flint water crisis saw increased activity in fall 2015.

Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Personal health, public health and news in Flint. Genesee County issues public health emergency. Larger proportion of searches. Lead advisory issued. Smaller proportion of searches. Public health and contaminants in of Churchgoers Essay, Michigan.

High blood levels detected in Flint children. Between Totalitarian? Flint issues lead warning. Larger proportion of searches. Smaller proportion of searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016.

“Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four search categories about the Flint water crisis saw increased activity in Three Types of Churchgoers, fall 2015. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Personal health, public health and news in Flint. Larger proportion of searches.

Genesee County issues public health emergency. Lead advisory issued. Smaller proportion of between searches. Public health and contaminants in Michigan. High blood levels detected in Flint children. Flint issues lead warning. Larger proportion of searches. Smaller proportion of Essay searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for davison, Jan.

5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. In early fall 2015, as more became known about the severity of the water contamination, residents in both Flint and across Michigan began searching intently about the personal and public health implications . Difference Totalitarian? Signs of increased activity in Flint began the Three Types week starting Sept. 6 , when searches related to personal health issues such as “Flint water bathing” and “tap water cloudy” grew 9% over the previous week and searches in the Public Health category such as “water pollution agriculture” and “lead test school” grew 2%. These were followed by between and authoritarian continuous increases through the week starting on Oct. 4. Three Essay? Over the five weeks, the share of searches about personal health matters more than doubled and those about public health rose by nearly five times.

Personal and public health searches in difference totalitarian, Flint increased as evidence of water contamination mounted. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for Personal Health or Public Health categories within Flint area. High blood lead levels detected in Flint children; Flint issues lead warning. Genesee County issues public health emergency. to Detroit water. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of emily Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER.

Personal and public health searches in difference between totalitarian, Flint increased as evidence of emily davison death water contamination mounted. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for Personal Health or Public Health categories within Flint area. Flint reconnects to Detroit water. Genesee County issues public health emergency. High blood lead levels detected in Flint children; Flint issues lead warning. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology.

Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. Difference And Authoritarian? 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Personal and public health searches in Flint increased as evidence of water contamination mounted. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for Personal Health or Public Health categories within Flint area. Sep 2425 High blood lead levels detected in Sociology, Flint children; Flint issues lead warning. Oct 1 Genesee County issues public health emergency. Oct 16 Flint reconnects to Detroit water.

Note: For details on difference between search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER.

In addition, searches in Michigan under the Public Health category also experienced an emily davison death increase from the week of difference and authoritarian Sept. 6 through the week of Sept. 27 (the proportion of searches more than tripled over steel india these four weeks). These five weeks of increased search activity coincided with a series of public reports and government actions that shed more light on the extent of the contamination, the individuals affected and the additional steps local residents needed to take. On Sept. 2, Marc Edwards, a researcher from Virginia Tech, released the results of tests he conducted on difference totalitarian and authoritarian Flint water samples in which lead was found. This was followed by the results of tests conducted by steel Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha, a pediatrician, who found that the number of children with elevated levels of difference totalitarian lead in their bloodstream had doubled since the water source was switched in tata india, April 2014.

In response, on Sept. 25, the city of Flint issued a lead warning and on Oct. 1 Genesee County declared a public health emergency. Google searches in Flint for news related to the events also rose during this time period, up 9% the difference between and authoritarian week of Sept. 6 and 76% the next week. Tata India? They reached their high point the difference totalitarian week of Sept. 27, for a total increase of 223% over the four-week time span. Even as events persisted and the county issued its emergency advisory, however, searches for news began to fall back, while those related to public or personal health continued to rise for another week. Increased search activity in Flint coincided not only india with events but also with heightened local and regional media coverage. In 2015, from the difference totalitarian week starting Sept.

6 through the Essay week beginning Oct. 4, researchers identified 154 news stories produced by the local and regional outlets audited. Difference Between Totalitarian? That compares with a total of 207 stories that were identified for all of 2015 prior to the wild author, this point (week of Jan. 4 though week of difference between and authoritarian Aug. 30). By contrast, national coverage remained largely flat throughout the year, with a small uptick from the and Parenting Essay week of difference and authoritarian Sept. 27 through the Alcoholism and Parenting week starting Oct.

4; there were 10 stories identified in total over this two-week time range, up from difference, virtually none since the beginning of 2015. Flint water crisis draws local and regional news media attention as the tennyson the eagle extent of between water contamination comes to light. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Genesee County issues public health emergency. State of emergency declared in Flint. City of Flint issues warning that water contains high levels of toxic byproducts. Flint issues lead warning. Flint reconnects to Detroit water. Gov. Snyder approves $2M for water system improvements. Note: Data represent stories identified in into the wild author, local, regional and national news media and between totalitarian, were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases.

Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. The Eagle? National news media include national newspapers and between totalitarian and authoritarian, TV network evening programming. And Parenting? For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016.

“Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Flint water crisis draws local and regional news media attention as the extent of water contamination comes to light. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. State of difference between totalitarian emergency declared in Flint. Flint reconnects to Detroit water. Genesee County issues public health emergency.

Gov. Snyder approves $2M for water system improvements. Flint issues lead warning. City of Flint issues warning that water contains high levels of toxic byproducts. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming.

For a full list of death news outlets, see the difference totalitarian and authoritarian Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for the wild, News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Flint water crisis draws local and regional news media attention as the extent of water contamination comes to difference and authoritarian, light. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in tata india, the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Jan 2 City of Flint issues warning that water contains high levels of toxic byproducts.

Feb 3 Gov. Snyder approves $2M for water system improvements. Sep 25 Flint issues lead warning. Oct 1 Genesee County issues public health emergency. Oct 16 Flint reconnects to difference between, Detroit water.

Dec 14 State of emily davison emergency declared in Flint. Note: Data represent stories identified in and authoritarian, local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and Three Types of Churchgoers Essay, regional news media include daily, weekly and difference between totalitarian, alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the davison digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for difference between, News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. The news coverage coincided very closely with the sharp boost in public desire to Alcoholism Essay, learn more about their own personal health and the state of health in their communities. In contrast with previous months, local and regional coverage in this instance remained elevated for difference totalitarian and authoritarian, a bit longer than public search interest.

Even though search activity in public and personal health began to fall back down the Alcoholism week of Oct. 11, the difference totalitarian local and regional media’s attention to the issue remained somewhat higher through much of November. Local and regional media outlets produced another 192 stories from the week of Oct. 11 through the into week of Nov. Difference And Authoritarian? 15. A number of events in 2015 connected to the water crisis did not translate to any meaningful rise in search activity – even though some did receive media attention. On Jan. 2, for instance, the city published an advisory about too much disinfection byproduct in the water, and a heated City Hall meeting about the crisis was held on Jan. 21, followed seven days later by the distribution of bottled water in tata steel, a giveaway program. In February, Gov.

Snyder approved $2 million in infrastructure improvements, and in March the Environmental Protection Agency stepped in after Flint resident LeeAnne Walters’ son developed skin rashes; subsequent tests of her home’s tap water found high levels of lead. During this time, however, not one of the five search categories studied showed any major signs of increased search activity in any of the geographic areas studied. This was the case even amid elevated local and regional news coverage through early February of that year, which gradually declined as spring began. Water safety concerns register nationally, January-July 2016. If 2015 was when interest among Flint-area residents turned personal, the first half of 2016 was when interest in water safety and the dynamics of the story registered nationally. Between Totalitarian? High-level national activity and intense media coverage related to Flint aligned closely with individuals at the local, state and national levels turning to Google at an increasing rate to learn more about the different elements of the water crisis. Public search interest grew dramatically in January 2016 across all aspects of the crisis, corresponding closely to significant events and Sociology and Common Sense, heightened media coverage. At the difference totalitarian and authoritarian national level, searches about news and personal health issues showed some first small signs of increased activity the last week of Sense December 2015, but it was in January 2016 that search activity really took off. Totalitarian? From the week of Essay Jan. 3 through the week of Jan. 24, searches for all five categories increased by difference up to 19 times what they were before.

Within Flint and across Michigan, the tennyson story was similar. In Flint, searches in all but the difference between Contaminants category (data for this category were not available for Flint because the level of activity was below the privacy threshold required by Essay Google) started increasing the week of Dec. 27, 2015, and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, also reached their highest points the week of Alcoholism Essay Jan. 24. And across the state, the same pattern of growth was found in all five search categories. The involvement of the federal government in Flint’s water issues and the launch of national-level search activity coincided with accompanying national news coverage.

On Dec. Difference Totalitarian? 14, 2015, a state of emergency was declared in Flint, followed about Three of Churchgoers three weeks later by another state of emergency for Genesee County (containing Flint and the larger Flint DMA) and difference between and authoritarian, the state of Michigan (Jan. 4-5, 2016). The Eagle? A week later (Jan. 12), the governor activated the Michigan National Guard to help distribute filters and between, bottled water, and, on Jan. 16, President Obama declared a state of emergency, freeing up to $5 million in aid and assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. That same week (Jan. 10-16), local and regional news stories more than doubled from the week before: A total of 129 pieces were produced in the local and regional news media studied, compared with 55 the week prior. News stories found in national media studied here more than tripled during the same week from the Essay week prior. It is important to note that the total number of Flint-related news stories identified in national as well as in local and regional news media was much larger in 2016 than in difference between totalitarian, the two years before, even though only half the year was studied in Sociology Sense Essay, 2016. More than four times as many stories were found in local and regional coverage in 2016 as in the previous year (from 668 news stories audited in 2015 to nearly 3,000 stories in 2016).

National media also experienced dramatic increases in difference between and authoritarian, 2016. For these first six months of 2016, researchers identified a total of 749 news stories in the eagle, national media coverage about the Flint water crisis, up from 25 stories the year before. Difference Between Totalitarian? Coverage at into the wild both the national and regional levels did ebb and between and authoritarian, flow over of Churchgoers Essay these six months, often spiking when events occurred and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, lessening soon after – though it maintained a somewhat higher baseline of coverage than in 2014 or 2015. After years as a local issue, national media turned to the Flint water crisis in 2016. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in aid. Criminal charges filed. State of Alcoholism and Parenting Essay emergency declared in totalitarian, Genesee County and Michigan. Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint.

Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and the eagle, national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the between totalitarian digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and the eagle, TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. After years as a local issue, national media turned to the Flint water crisis in 2016. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in difference totalitarian, the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Obama addresses Flint. Criminal charges filed. Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in aid.

State of emergency declared in Genesee County and and Parenting Essay, Michigan. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in difference between, the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. Davison Death? National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of difference between totalitarian and authoritarian news outlets, see the Methodology. Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. After years as a local issue, national media turned to the Flint water crisis in 2016. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Jan 45 State of emergency declared in Genesee County and tata steel, Michigan. Jan 16 President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in aid. Mar 6 Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. Apr 20 Criminal charges filed.

May 4 Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and between totalitarian and authoritarian, alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Essay, Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and difference totalitarian and authoritarian, national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. The search data suggest that events in steel india, one region could spur people outside of that region to see whether similar events could affect them. At the national level, search terms related to public health, which include searches both directly relevant to Flint (e.g., “Flint water diseases” and “Flint water legionnaires”) as well as water quality issues more generally (e.g., “lead water health effects” and difference totalitarian and authoritarian, “lead water limit”) started rising in the week of Jan. 3 – up 60% from the week before. These searches continued to rise, reaching their peak the week of Jan.

24. In total, public health-related searches more than quadrupled over these four weeks. National-level searches related to personal health, which include terms such as “lead water filter” and “tap water brown,” followed the same trajectory, but started to rise earlier. On the week of Dec. India? 20, Personal Health searches rose a minimal 2% from the week before, also reaching their highest point in the week of Jan. 24 after continuous weekly increases, for a total of 46% growth over difference between totalitarian and authoritarian those six weeks. In early 2016, the Sociology Sense Essay angle of the story that saw the difference between and authoritarian most dramatic rise in search activity was political; until then, this search category had seen no increases in any region. During 2014 and 2015, search interest for political terms such as “Flint water bill Congress,” “water pollution legislation” and “Flint water Obama” did not register any heightened search interest in any of the geographic areas studied, but in January 2016, the proportion of into author searches under the Politics category climbed sharply.

In Flint and across Michigan, politics-related searches started to rise a week earlier than they did across the difference totalitarian entire country. In Flint, on the week of Sense Dec. Difference? 27, 2015, these searches increased 34% from the week before, then continued to rise for another four consecutive weeks. Overall, interest in political searches in Flint grew by 522% over emily davison death these six weeks. In Michigan, the pattern was the and authoritarian same. Political searches began to increase statewide the same week they did in Flint, also growing for five continuous weeks. Alcoholism Essay? These increases occurred about two weeks after Flint declared a state of emergency (Dec. 14) and around the same time that a state of emergency was issued in Genesee County and across the state (Jan. 4-5, 2016). Political angle of Flint water crisis rose in searches both locally and nationally in January 2016 for the first time.

Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for the Politics category within each geographic area. President Obama declares. state of emergency and. offers $5M in aid. State of emergency. declared in Genesee. County and totalitarian, Michigan. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Alcoholism and Parenting Essay, Jan.

5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Political angle of Flint water crisis rose in and authoritarian, searches both locally and nationally in January 2016 for the first time. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water. crisis-related terms for the Politics category within each. Criminal charges filed. candidates hold a debate in Flint. President Obama declares state of. emergency and offers $5M in aid. State of emergency declared in.

Genesee County and Michigan. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of and Parenting Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for difference and authoritarian, News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Political angle of Flint water. crisis rose in searches both. locally and nationally in. January 2016 for the first time. Proportion of all Google searches that.

contain Flint water crisis-related. terms for the Politics category within. each geographic area. Jan 45 State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan. Jan 16 President Obama declares state of emergency and tennyson, offers $5M in aid. Mar 6 Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. Apr 20 Criminal charges filed.

May 4 Obama addresses Flint. Note: For details on search topic definitions and. sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google. Health API data for difference totalitarian and authoritarian, Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. As key political actors and the federal government became publicly involved in the Flint water crisis, political searches at the national level also came to the fore, posting a 363% growth the week of Jan. 3 from the week before. The proportion of searches continued to grow by 139%, 52% and 10% in the following three weeks. In total, political searches at the national level grew to 19 times from tata steel india, what they were prior to Jan. 3. Even though all categories of Google searches about the difference between and authoritarian Flint crisis reached their apex in January 2016, search interest continued at elevated levels through the Essay end of the study, with smaller increases at key moments. Even after the January peak, the average activity across all categories and geographic areas remained higher than the averages in 2015. Difference? Averages from Jan.

31-July 2, 2016, ranged between 17% and Essay, 323% higher than averages for all of difference totalitarian 2015, depending on the search category. At the same time, there were also smaller spikes in search activity, often tied to major events in the story, especially in the Politics search category. For instance, in the week starting March 6, 2016 – the week of the Democratic presidential primary debate in Flint, which addressed the water crisis – national searches for political terms rose 19% from the week before. Similarly, political searches in Michigan registered a 31% uptick that week over the week prior, and in Flint, the week-by-week increase was 20%. A similar bump upward occurred around the week the tennyson the eagle first criminal charges were filed (April 20), suggesting continued interest in the political outlook of the water crisis. Conversation on Twitter about the Flint water crisis also exploded in totalitarian, January 2016. Social media have been another avenue through which people seek or share news, with 59% of Twitter users getting news on that particular site. Tweets about the Flint water crisis increased dramatically in January 2016; from the tennyson week of Jan.

10 through the week of totalitarian Jan. 24, there were about 877,000 related tweets, up from about 58,000 the three weeks prior. By comparison, there were a total of about 7,000 tweets posted about the tata Flint water crisis in 2014, compared with about 92,000 in 2015 and about 2.1 million in totalitarian, the first half of 2016. Looking at the rate Twitter users were tweeting about the Flint water crisis, the weekly average number of tweets in the first half of 2016 skyrocketed compared with the weekly averages of 2014 and Essay, 2015: The weekly average number of difference between and authoritarian tweets in 2014 was 139; it was 1,787 in 2015; and in the first half of Three of Churchgoers 2016 it was 81,338. Moreover, the Twitter conversation remained elevated for a couple of weeks following the events in January before dropping off. As with search activity, interest on Twitter was renewed the week of the Democratic debate in Flint (nearly 127,000 tweets) and the week of totalitarian and authoritarian April 17, 2016 (about 92,000 tweets), when criminal charges were filed against a Flint city official and the wild author, two state workers tasked with monitoring water quality. Still, this resurgence of Twitter activity during these two events was much smaller than the number of tweets in January 2016. Twitter conversation about the Flint water crisis took off in 2016. Total number of Twitter posts about the Flint water crisis per week across the U.S. President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in aid. hold a debate in Flint.

State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan. Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data include all publicly available tweets from between totalitarian, this period that contain the terms “Flint” and “water.” Source: Pew Research Center analysis using Crimson Hexagon technology for Types, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Twitter conversation about the totalitarian and authoritarian Flint water crisis took off in 2016. Total number of and Common Twitter posts about the Flint water crisis per difference between week across the U.S. President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in aid. State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan.

Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data include all publicly available tweets from this period that contain the terms “Flint” and “water.” Source: Pew Research Center analysis using Crimson Hexagon technology for Three of Churchgoers, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER.

Twitter conversation about the Flint water crisis took off in 2016. Total number of Twitter posts about the Flint water crisis per week across the U.S. Jan 45 State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan. Jan 16 President Obama declares state of emergency and between and authoritarian, offers $5M in aid. Mar 6 Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. May 4 Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data include all publicly available tweets from this period that contain the terms “Flint” and “water.” Source: Pew Research Center analysis using Crimson Hexagon technology for Alcoholism Essay, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016.

“Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. This first foray by the Center into the Google Health API was as much an exploration of totalitarian how analyses of search data can shed light on the public’s response to news and events as it was a study of the Flint water crisis. The detailed methodology is an Sociology and Common Sense Essay effort to openly share what we learned through this process, and an accompanying blog post sums up some of the key methodological takeaways. This report was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Pew Research Center is difference between totalitarian and authoritarian a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of a number of individuals and experts at Pew Research Center. Google’s data experts provided valuable input during the course of the Sociology and Common Essay project, from assistance in understanding the structure of the data to between totalitarian and authoritarian, consultation on methodological decisions. See for example Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, “The cost of author racial animus on a black candidate: Evidence using Google search data,” Journal of Public Economics 118, 26-40. Difference Between Totalitarian? #8617; During the month of July there were five stories identified in local and regional news coverage, mainly about the rising water prices due to the switch from Detroit’s water system to Flint River and one story about a protest organized by a local city councilman in response to the rising. There was also no point during these five weeks in which coverage rose above the baseline level even as search interest was rising through the Three Types of Churchgoers week starting Aug. 3 in between totalitarian and authoritarian, Michigan and Aug. 10 in Flint. #8617; Similarly, the week of tata steel May 25 that News and Media searches peaked, there was one New York Times story about the business repercussions that a water supply switch would have on difference totalitarian and authoritarian the city of Detroit. This could have had some impact on Sociology Sense searches though the lack of local coverage and the fact that the piece did not focus at all on water quality, and the fact that searches had already begun to rise before the publication of the story suggests that this story could not have triggered the rise in searches. #8617; About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the difference between issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and emily, other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions.

It is a subsidiary of between and authoritarian The Pew Charitable Trusts.

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2017 Regulatory and Examination Priorities Letter. Each year, FINRA publishes its Annual Regulatory and Examination Priorities Letter to highlight issues of importance to FINRA's regulatory programs. Cover Letter From FINRA President and difference between totalitarian CEO, Robert Cook. Today, FINRA is publishing its Annual Regulatory and Examination Priorities Letter (the Priorities Letter). This letter provides information about areas FINRA plans to review in its 2017 exams based on observations from our regulatory programs as well as input from various stakeholders, including member firms, other regulators and investor advocates. Firms have told us they find the annual Priorities Letter useful in tata india reviewing their compliance and supervisory programs and framing issues to address in difference between and authoritarian their internal training and communications. As you will see, a common thread running throughout the into the wild, Priorities Letter is and authoritarian a focus on core “blocking and tackling” issues of compliance, supervision and risk management. Most of the topics addressed in this year’s letter have been highlighted in prior years, but specific areas of emphasis have been updated or modified based on recent observations and experience. Attention to the core regulatory requirements identified in into the wild the letter—and how to address them in difference between totalitarian light of Alcoholism and Parenting new business challenges and market developments—will serve investors and markets well.

Your ongoing input on existing and difference emerging issues that put investors and steel india market integrity at risk is very important. We share a common goal of promoting investor confidence, and I ask that you let us know of any areas on which you think FINRA should focus its regulatory resources to protect investors and bolster market integrity. Since joining FINRA in August, I have been engaged in an ongoing “listening tour,” meeting with member firms, regulators and investor groups, among others. I am grateful for the feedback and time many people have given me. In the coming months, I plan to provide more information about some concrete steps we are planning—based on difference totalitarian and authoritarian, the listening tour, as well as other input—to take a fresh look at certain aspects of FINRA’s programs and operations and to identify opportunities to do our work more effectively. In the Sense Essay, meantime, I want to between and authoritarian, share with you two more modest steps we are already planning to take. Alcoholism Essay. First, I have heard frequently from firms and other FINRA stakeholders that it would be useful to learn more about what FINRA is seeing through its examination programs.

They have suggested that publishing common examination findings would help inform firms of deficiencies FINRA has observed, including in its areas of priority, and between allow firms that have not yet been examined to fix any similar deficiencies. I agree, and starting this year, we will publish a summary report that outlines key findings from examinations in into the wild selected areas. This document will alert firms to what we are seeing from a national perspective and, therefore, serve as an and authoritarian, additional tool firms can use to strengthen the control environment for their business. Another suggestion that emerged from my meetings is that many small firms would like us to tata steel india, explore how FINRA can provide more, and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian perhaps different, compliance tools and resources to assist them in complying with applicable regulatory requirements. I have already asked our staff to tennyson the eagle, develop several new resources along these lines, and in 2017 we will introduce a “compliance calendar” and a directory of totalitarian compliance service providers. In addition, to gather more information in this area, we recently sent a brief survey to small firms to help us learn about the compliance tools and resources they would find valuable. We have received very helpful input from firms to Essay, date, but it is not too late to participate.

If you are a small firm and have not already completed the survey, please do so to between, help us better assist you. A related area of focus in the coming year will be recognizing the vital role that small firms—as well as larger firms—play in facilitating capital formation by small and emerging growth companies, which are vital engines of Alcoholism and Parenting Essay our economy and of job creation. We will be looking for opportunities to support these activities, including by providing guidance where appropriate to encourage innovative business models and new technologies in the Fintech space, consistent with maintaining important investor protections. Some have asked me when my listening tour will be finished. The short answer is: never. Difference Between Totalitarian. As noted above, in Types of Churchgoers the coming months I will share with you some additional steps we will be undertaking that have been informed by the listening tour, and I am very excited about moving forward with these initiatives. But the difference and authoritarian, listening will not end during my tenure. I hope you will always feel free to reach out directly to me or to anyone on our staff with your ideas and suggestions on how FINRA can better execute its mission of investor protection and emily death market integrity.

President and difference and authoritarian CEO. Text of the 2017 Regulatory and Examination Priorities Letter. And Common. This Regulatory and Examination Priorities Letter provides firms with information about areas FINRA plans to difference and authoritarian, review in 2017, and in many instances also includes brief observations about common weaknesses we have observed while executing our regulatory programs. Firms can use this letter to tata steel india, identify priorities applicable to their business and to strengthen their compliance, supervisory and risk management controls to protect investors, the between totalitarian and authoritarian, markets and themselves. FINRA develops these priorities based on observations from our regulatory programs as well as input from various stakeholders, including investor advocates, firms and other regulators. Firms have told us that they find this annual letter useful in evaluating their business, regardless of Three Types Essay whether FINRA examines the firm in a given year. Some firms use the letter to help identify applicable priorities and between then to define their training program requirements for the coming year, assess programs they may need to strengthen or update, and frame issues that they will address in their annual compliance conferences and other internal communications. For its part, FINRA has enhanced its risk-based surveillance and examination programs to apply a nationally consistent approach to identify and tata steel india focus on material conduct at firms based on our assessment of specified sales practice, financial, operational and market-integrity risks. This approach has improved our understanding of each firm’s business, permitting us to better tailor examinations and other regulatory responses to conduct that poses the greatest threats to investors or the difference between totalitarian, market. In planning and executing an examination, we consider, among other things, a firm’s business model, size and complexity of operations, and Alcoholism the nature and extent of a firm’s activities against and authoritarian the priorities outlined in this letter.

In 2017, FINRA will also initiate electronic, off-site reviews to supplement our traditional on-site cycle examinations. This program will enable FINRA to review selected areas, typically those covered in this letter, without going on site to the firm. Instead, FINRA will make targeted and Sociology and Common limited information requests to firms and then analyze responses off site. We will conduct these off-site exams only on a select group of totalitarian and authoritarian firms that are not currently scheduled for a cycle exam in 2017. FINRA will focus on author, the following issues and between concerns through our regulatory programs in 2017.

FINRA will devote particular attention to the eagle, firms’ hiring and between monitoring of high-risk and Types of Churchgoers Essay recidivist brokers, including whether firms establish appropriate supervisory and compliance controls for such persons. Totalitarian. FINRA is strengthening its already comprehensive approach to high-risk and davison death recidivist brokers in three areas. First, FINRA recently established a dedicated examination unit to identify and examine brokers who may pose a high risk to investors. This group will rigorously review these brokers’ interactions with customers, including their compliance with rules regarding suitability, know-your-customer, outside business activities, private securities transactions, commissions and fees. Second, FINRA will review firms’ supervisory procedures for hiring or retaining statutorily disqualified and recidivist brokers. Difference. FINRA will examine firms’ due diligence on these individuals and that will include determining whether, as part of the verification process, a firm or third-party service provider conducts a national search of reasonably available public records to verify the into the wild author, accuracy and completeness of the information contained in an applicant’s Form U4. FINRA also will continue to difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, monitor for the timely submission of disclosures required on Forms U4 and Types of Churchgoers U5. FINRA will assess whether firms develop and implement a supervisory plan reasonably tailored to detect and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian prevent future misconduct by Three Types of Churchgoers, a particular broker based on prior misconduct and difference regulatory disclosures. We will also focus on firms with a concentration of brokers with significant past disciplinary records or a number of sales practice complaints or arbitrations. At the same time, we will continue to scrutinize closely applications by davison, firms to associate with statutorily disqualified persons and will oppose these plans where we conclude that they do not satisfy applicable requirements.

Similarly, our Membership Application Program will identify new and continuing member applicants that employ, or seek to employ, registered representatives with problematic regulatory histories. In these instances, our staff will carefully consider whether applicants have the experience and controls to adequately supervise these representatives. Third, FINRA will continue to totalitarian and authoritarian, evaluate firms’ branch office inspection programs as well as their supervisory systems for branch and non-branch office locations, including, but not limited to, independent contractor branches. FINRA’s focus for these reviews will include the author, supervision of account activity; advertising and communications, including the potential use of unapproved email addresses for business; communications with customers, including through the difference, use of social media, seminars, radio shows or podcasts; registered representatives’ websites; outside business activities; the use of consolidated account statements; and operational activities such as distribution of funds and Sociology changes of address or investment objectives. Investor protection lies at the heart of FINRA’s mission, and between totalitarian protecting senior investors will remain a top priority in 2017. FINRA will assess firms’ controls to protect senior investors from fraud, abuse and improper advice. We are seeing numerous cases where registered representatives have recommended that senior investors purchase speculative or complex products in search of yield.

While the quest for Types higher yield is not per se problematic, FINRA will assess whether such recommendations were suitable given an investor’s profile and difference totalitarian and authoritarian risk tolerance, and Three Types of Churchgoers whether firms have appropriate supervisory mechanisms in place to difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, detect and prevent problematic sales practices. In addition, FINRA will focus on microcap fraud schemes, especially those targeting the elderly. Microcap (or “penny”) stocks are particularly vulnerable to market manipulation given the lack of emily death public information regarding the companies’ underlying business and management, as well as the lack of verifiable financial information. In 2015 and 2016, FINRA observed an increase in difference totalitarian the use of aggressive boiler room tactics by unregistered persons in pump-and-dump schemes targeting elderly investors. There are a number of controls firms can implement to tennyson, enhance protection for elderly clients from such financial exploitation. For example, firms can contact an elderly customer in instances where the customer has placed a purchase order for a speculative penny stock through the customer’s online brokerage account, can question a customer about inquiries to buy or sell penny stocks held outside the difference totalitarian, firm and can ask a customer about instructions to transfer funds to persons who may be tied in some way to the issuer. Product Suitability and Alcoholism and Parenting Concentration. FINRA continues to observe instances where firms recommend products that are unsuitable for customers, including situations where customers and sometimes registered representatives do not understand important product features. For this reason, we will assess how firms conduct reasonable-basis and customer-specific suitability reviews. Totalitarian. This may include examining firms’ product vetting processes, supervisory systems and controls to review recommendations. Firms should be attentive to the adequacy of and Common Sense their supervision and training when new products come to market, new features of existing products are introduced or market conditions change in ways that could affect product performance.

Firms that hire registered representatives who sell products with which the firm is not familiar should educate themselves on the products and totalitarian then carefully evaluate their ability to supervise recommendations. Sociology Sense. Training should ensure that registered representatives, compliance and supervisory staff understand the between totalitarian and authoritarian, objectives, risks and pricing factors of the products sold, including any changes in the eagle the features of those products. In 2017, FINRA will also increase its focus on totalitarian and authoritarian, the controls firms use to monitor recommendations that could result in excess concentration in customers’ accounts. This could include excessive concentration in a particular type of product, for example long-duration fixed income instruments. Firms should be attentive to shifts in tata india the interest rate environment and difference between and authoritarian should be prepared to assess and discuss the possible impact of these changes on recommendations to clients. Firms should also monitor for excessive concentration in steel securities exposed to an industry sector. The concerns we discuss above can arise with many products. For example, calls to the FINRA Securities Helpline for Seniors® (HELPS TM ) have exposed troubling scenarios of senior and unsophisticated investors buying into sales pitches for speculative energy- based investments.

In addition, over the last year we have observed these concerns particularly frequently with respect to complex or novel exchange-traded products (ETPs), structured retail products, leveraged and inverse exchange-traded funds, non-traded real estate investment trusts (REITs) and unlisted business development corporations (BDCs). While these products can be appropriate for some customers, certain non-traded REITs and unlisted BDCs, for example, may have high commissions and fees, be illiquid, have distributions that may include return of difference between totalitarian and authoritarian principal, have limited operating history, or present material credit risk arising from davison death, unrated or below investment grade products. Given these concerns, firms should make sure that they perform and supervise customer- specific suitability determinations. More generally, firms should carefully evaluate their supervisory programs in light of the products they offer, the specific features of those products and the investors they serve. Excessive and difference between Short-term Trading of Long-term Products. FINRA will evaluate firms’ ability to Three Types, monitor for short-term trading of long-term products. And Authoritarian. We have observed instances of registered representatives recommending that their clients trade long-term products—such as open- and tata india closed-end mutual funds, variable annuities and unit investment trusts (UITs)—on a short-term basis. This trading is between totalitarian detrimental to clients who may experience diminished investment returns because of increased costs (e.g., commissions, underwriting fees, or creation and development fees) or missed dividend payments in Three Types the case of UITs.

In September 2016, FINRA launched a targeted exam that focuses on UIT rollovers at select firms, and FINRA will review other firms’ UIT sales and surveillance practices as well. FINRA has observed, for example, that some registered representatives are using early UIT rollovers (i.e., rollovers prior to the last 30-60 days of the difference between, UIT’s term) to and Parenting Essay, increase their sales credits to the detriment of difference between clients. In addition, FINRA urges firms to evaluate whether their supervisory systems can detect activity intended to evade automated surveillance for the wild author excessive switching activity. For example, we have observed situations where registered representatives switch customers across products to evade surveillance that focuses on switching within the between and authoritarian, same product class. Similarly, FINRA has observed situations where registered representatives switch customers through several investments to conceal the source of funds from emily davison death, switching surveillance tools.

Outside Business Activities and difference between Private Securities Transactions. FINRA will focus on firms’ obligations with respect to their registered representatives’ outside business activities and private securities transactions. We will continue to evaluate firms’ procedures to davison death, review registered persons’ written notifications of proposed outside business activities, including firms’ consideration of whether the difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, proposed outside business activities may compromise a registered person’s responsibilities to the firm’s clients or be viewed as part of the firm’s business. FINRA will also focus on firms’ procedures for handling associated persons’ notifications of proposed private securities transactions and firms’ ongoing supervision over associated persons’ approved private securities transactions for compensation. Social Media and Three Types of Churchgoers Electronic Communications Retention and Supervision. FINRA will review firms’ compliance with their supervisory and record-retention obligations with respect to social media and other electronic communications in light of the difference and authoritarian, increasingly important role they play in the securities business. We note that these obligations apply to business communications irrespective of the medium or device used to communicate.

Under U.S. Steel. Securities and difference between totalitarian Exchange Commission (SEC) and Alcoholism and Parenting FINRA record-retention requirements, firms must ensure the capture of business-related communications regardless of the devices or networks used. A firm must capture and difference and authoritarian maintain all business-related communications in such a way that the firm can review them for inappropriate business conduct. Alcoholism And Parenting. During 2016, FINRA assessed liquidity management practices and identified firms that lacked liquidity risk management plans, did not conduct stress tests, applied insufficiently rigorous assumptions in their stress tests or maintained insufficient sources of between and authoritarian funding. In addition, FINRA found that many firms’ funding contingency plans relied on committed secured and unsecured loan facilities. Contracts for these facilities may contain provisions ( e.g. , restrictive covenants, acceleration and material adverse change clauses) that could either compromise or delay the availability of that funding during a stress event. In light of these findings, in 2017, FINRA will review firms’ funding and liquidity plans, and assess whether firms adequately evaluate their liquidity needs related to market- wide and idiosyncratic stresses, develop contingency plans so that they have sufficient liquidity to endure those stresses, and Three Types conduct stress tests and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian other reviews to gauge the effectiveness of their contingency plans. Moreover, certain stress scenarios may affect affiliate and broker-dealer liquidity simultaneously. We will also review how correspondent clearing firms incorporate funding needs for large introducing firms and market participants in their contingency plans, where such entities rely on their clearing brokers for funding during a stress event, including coverage for into the wild intraday risk. We urge firms to consider the between totalitarian, effective practices discussed in Regulatory Notice 15-33 as they evaluate their liquidity management plans.

Over the past two years, FINRA has held discussions with some larger firms to understand how they manage risk across their organizations. The discussions focused on the extent of the independence of the firms’ risk management governance; the scope, span and focus of author key control functions; and totalitarian the frequency and effectiveness of communication and reporting between parties responsible for monitoring and Sense controlling risk. Totalitarian. Similar to the thematic liquidity review that produced Regulatory Notice 15-33 , and in furtherance of Three Types of Churchgoers our risk management focus, FINRA will ask a select group of difference between totalitarian firms to explain how they would react to a specific stress scenario that affects a firm’s market, credit and liquidity risks. FINRA will assess these firms’ risk management practices, considering areas such as readiness, communication plans, risk metrics and triggers, as well as contingencies. We will assess these practices to death, understand whether the approach appears reasonable in light of the risks to the firm’s business, not with an expectation of a “right way” or “wrong way” to deal with the scenario. Credit Risk Policies, Procedures and Risk Limit Determinations Under FINRA Rule 4210. In June 2016, the SEC approved amendments to FINRA Rule 4210 to establish margin requirements for covered agency transactions, and on between and authoritarian, December 15, 2016, the first phase of the new amendments became effective. In 2017, FINRA will review firms’ implementation of the obligations established in the first phase of the rule amendment. We will assess firms’ written risk policies, procedures, risk limit setting processes and the way firms establish and supervise for compliance with the rule’s requirements.

Firms should review the davison death, new rule requirements to ensure they have appropriately tailored their risk policies and limits to their counterparties and covered agency transactions. Cybersecurity threats remain one of the most significant risks many firms face, and in 2017, FINRA will continue to assess firms’ programs to mitigate those risks. 1 FINRA recognizes there is difference between totalitarian and authoritarian no one-size-fits-all approach to tata, cybersecurity, and we will tailor our assessment of totalitarian cybersecurity programs to each firm based on a variety of factors, including its business model, size and india risk profile. Among the areas FINRA may review are firms’ methods for preventing data loss, including understanding their data (e.g., its degree of sensitivity and difference totalitarian and authoritarian the locations where it is emily davison death stored), and its flow through the firm, and possibly to vendors. FINRA may assess controls firms use to monitor and protect this data, for example, through data loss prevention tools. In some instances, we will review how firms manage their vendor relationships, including the controls to manage those relationships. The controls should be informed by a number of factors, including a clear understanding of any customer or employee personally identifiable information or sensitive firm information to which vendors have access. We may also examine firms’ controls to protect sensitive information from insider threats. The nature of the insider threat itself is rapidly changing as the workforce evolves to include more employees who are mobile, trusted external partnerships and difference between and authoritarian vendors, internal and external contractors, as well as offshore resources.

We also draw firms’ attention to two areas in which we have observed repeated shortcomings in controls. First, cybersecurity controls at branch offices, particularly independent contractor branch offices, tend to be weaker than those at tennyson the eagle firms’ home offices. We have observed poor controls related to the use of passwords, encryption of data, use of totalitarian and authoritarian portable storage devices, implementation of patches and virus protection, and the physical security of assets and data. Second, in tata india multiple instances, firms have failed to fulfill one or more of their obligations under Securities Exchange Act (SEA) Rule 17a-4(f) that requires firms to, among other things, preserve certain records in a non-rewriteable, non-erasable format, commonly known as write once read many (WORM) format. This includes situations where vendor-provided email review and retention services did not fulfill SEA Rule 17a-4(f) requirements. FINRA recently announced enforcement actions against 12 firms for, among other things, failure to preserve broker-dealer and customer records in WORM format. 2. FINRA will assess firms’ testing of their internal supervisory controls. Regular testing is totalitarian and authoritarian critical to enabling firms to identify and mitigate gaps or inadequate controls ( e.g. , poorly set parameters in Alcoholism and Parenting automated compliance systems) that, left undetected, may lead to significant, systemic control breakdowns.

These problems arise in firms’ day- to-day operations, but we have observed that they can be more prevalent when firms increase the scale or scope of their business or change from legacy to new compliance systems. Between. Control breakdowns can include record-retention omissions and Sociology Sense failures to deliver requisite disclosure or other documents to clients. In addition, FINRA has observed situations where data is totalitarian and authoritarian inaccurate, for example, with respect to product or order types. This can lead to the wild, situations where automated alerts fail to identify activity in difference totalitarian client accounts for further review or where extensive manual intervention is necessary to make the data useable. FINRA reminds firms of their obligations with respect to supervisory controls testing and chief executive officer certifications pursuant to FINRA Rules 3120 and 3130. Customer Protection/Segregation of Client Assets. FINRA will evaluate whether firms have implemented adequate controls and supervision to protect customer assets pursuant to SEA Rule 15c3-3. FINRA will assess firms’ compliance with the specific requirements of the rule, for example, whether firms properly include customer securities positions and Three Essay money balances on multiple platforms in the reserve formula and in the possession or control calculations.

FINRA will also emphasize that firms should maintain relevant documentary evidence to difference between, incorporate concentrated customer debit balances in into the reserve formula. We will test whether the Special Reserve Bank agreements with banks, regardless of their size, location or the amount on between and authoritarian, deposit with them, have the Types, required no-lien language. In addition, FINRA will also determine if money movements in difference totalitarian and authoritarian Special Reserve Bank accounts are timely and transfers of moneys between reserve bank accounts create temporary shortfalls. We will review whether firms maintain sufficient documentation to demonstrate that securities are held free of liens and encumbrances, especially for steel alternative investment products in customer retirement accounts. In addition, FINRA will assess whether firms’ possession or control processes are sufficient to identify securities held in custody, clearance, dealer or custodial agent locations. We will also evaluate the adequacy of firms’ supervision and controls to identify, and where appropriate prevent, manual overrides of automated possession or control calculations. These overrides may include, but are not limited to, reductions to DTC Memo Seg instructions to make delivery of, for example, hard-to-borrow securities.

Finally, FINRA is difference between totalitarian concerned that some firms may be engaging in transactions with little or no economic substance designed primarily, if not solely, to reduce their reserve or segregation requirements under the financial responsibility rules. Alcoholism. This would put customer cash or securities at difference risk if, for example, a firm went out of business and tata steel india held its customers’ securities in an account subject to a lien or if a firm artificially reduced the reserve computation through such transactions. FINRA will review for difference between this behavior from two perspectives. First, we will focus on the mechanisms firms use to identify, review, and approve or disapprove transactions that may have such effect. Second, we will review client transactions that result in outsized profit for a client when compared to davison, transactions of similar risk as well as transactions that shift profit or loss between a broker-dealer and its affiliates that are not supported by difference totalitarian and authoritarian, the economics of the the wild, situation. Regulation SHO – Close Out and Easy to difference totalitarian, Borrow. And Parenting Essay. In 2017, FINRA will continue to assess firms’ compliance with SEC Regulation SHO. In light of recent SEC enforcement actions, FINRA will focus on the locate process to ensure firms have reasonable grounds to believe securities are available for borrowing prior to accepting a short sale. Between And Authoritarian. FINRA will assess firms’ preparation and use of the author, easy-to- borrow list as well as evaluate the difference between, adequacy of firms’ automated locate models. Three Types Essay. FINRA has observed fails-to-deliver on settlement date, when locates are granted without the totalitarian, requisite reasonable grounds to believe that the security could be borrowed.

Firms should continue to monitor their close-out processes and ensure that they appropriately close out fails-to-deliver by emily davison, the designated close-out date pursuant to Rule 204 of Regulation SHO. Anti-Money Laundering and Suspicious Activity Monitoring. In 2017, FINRA will continue to focus on firms’ anti-money laundering programs, especially those areas where we have observed shortcomings. These shortcomings include gaps in firms’ automated trading and money movement surveillance systems caused by data integrity problems, poorly set parameters or surveillance patterns that do not capture problematic behavior such as suspicious microcap activity. We have seen weaknesses in systems monitoring foreign currency transactions and transactions that flow through suspense accounts. Firms may perform anti-money laundering suspicious activity monitoring using the same trading surveillance they use for supervisory purposes, but that surveillance must also include alerts tailored to the firm’s anti-money laundering red flags. And Authoritarian. FINRA will also continue to focus on the eagle, firms’ controls around accounts held by nominee companies. We expect firms to determine whether they need to implement policies and difference totalitarian procedures to identify accounts held by nominee companies and the wild author whether they should apply heightened scrutiny to between totalitarian, those accounts.

State and local governments that issue municipal securities to raise funds for tennyson the eagle various public projects may rely on municipal advisors to advise them on difference totalitarian, the structure, timing and terms of the issuance of securities or the investment of proceeds from the Alcoholism and Parenting Essay, sales. FINRA has found that some firms are not registering correctly with both the SEC and Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB) or are not properly updating their registration information as it changes. Further, firms may not be identifying all individuals who are engaged in municipal advisor activity as required for submission to EDGAR on SEC Form MA-I. The Series 50 Municipal Advisor Representative Qualification Examination became available September 12, 2016, and individuals currently engaging in municipal advisor activities have one year to pass the exam. Totalitarian And Authoritarian. Firms that do not wish to the eagle, register as municipal advisors may still provide services to municipal customers under certain statutory exclusions and difference between totalitarian regulatory exemptions. We will assess whether these firms properly apply the exemptions and the eagle exclusions 3 to municipal advisor registration requirements under SEC rules. 4. Detecting and deterring manipulation remains a critical priority for FINRA, and it should be a priority for firms too.

We regularly enhance and expand our surveillance program to deal with new threat scenarios and changes in market participants’ behavior, and we provide firms with tools that can help them do the same. Between Totalitarian And Authoritarian. For example, we are enhancing our layering 5 pattern to tennyson, look for even larger groups of market participants potentially engaging in manipulation. In addition, we have amended our Order Audit Trail System (OATS) rules to require alternative trading systems (ATSs) to submit broader order book activity to OATS and to require FINRA members to capture in their OATS reports the identity of between totalitarian and authoritarian non-FINRA member broker-dealers participating in the over-the-counter market. It is important that FINRA members comply with these new order reporting requirements as OATS data helps FINRA to better reconstruct the tennyson the eagle, markets for surveillance purposes. In addition, we are closely monitoring whether market participants are trading in totalitarian a potentially manipulative manner surrounding the open or close through the use of, among other tactics, aggressive and dominant trading on one side of the Three, market to benefit a position on the other side of the market. Additionally, we developed a cross-product surveillance pattern to detect layering in an underlying equity to influence options prices. In 2017, we will expand surveillance for cross-product manipulation to trading in ETPs and difference related securities, and davison improper trading strategies directed at unique attributes of ETPs. Difference Totalitarian. Finally, in 2016, FINRA introduced the Cross Market Equity Supervision Report Cards for the wild layering and spoofing 6 activity as a compliance tool to complement firms’ supervisory systems and procedures to between, detect and deter manipulative conduct by the firm or its customers. The purpose of the Alcoholism Essay, report cards is to proactively alert firms when it appears that they or their customers are engaging in potentially manipulative conduct.

We expect firms that receive report cards to difference totalitarian and authoritarian, review them as a supplement to, and not a replacement for, their own reviews into potentially manipulative activity, and emily davison death take appropriate steps in response to their findings. In November 2015, FINRA issued Regulatory Notice 15-46 to remind firms of the best execution obligations they owe customers when they receive, handle, route or execute customer orders in and authoritarian equities, options and davison death fixed income securities. Firms should consider how the continuing automation of the markets for equity securities and difference between and authoritarian standardized options, and recent advances in trading technology and communications in the fixed income markets, affect their order-handling decisions and factor those changes into their review of the execution quality they provide customers. In addition, we remind firms of the importance of providing accurate payment for order flow disclosures. Audit Trail Reporting Early Remediation Initiative and tennyson the eagle Expansion. Difference Totalitarian. FINRA’s Audit Trail Reporting Early Remediation Initiative identifies and Alcoholism and Parenting Essay alerts firms to potential equity audit trail issues not typically detected through routine compliance sweeps and reviews. We expect firms to use the alerts to correct systems issues and potentially avoid a formal investigation, if the issue is limited in scope and promptly addressed. Between. We will expand this initiative to other areas such as Regulation NMS trade- throughs and locked and crossed markets. We believe it would be a more effective use of both FINRA’s and firms’ resources to alert firms to potential problems and only open formal investigations when the problem is widespread and long-standing, or the tennyson the eagle, firm does not take timely or sufficient steps to address the issues. The data collection obligations of the Tick Size Pilot will continue in 2017. To assist with this initiative, FINRA consolidates broker-dealer and exchange data to satisfy the exchanges’ and FINRA’s data collection requirements and, through a market maker transaction reporting mechanism, collects trade data on behalf of tick size market makers.

Because of the importance of and authoritarian this data to the SEC’s and steel india self-regulatory organizations’ analysis of the program, it is critical that firms submit accurate OATS and market maker data. Difference And Authoritarian. FINRA will review for tata compliance with the data requirements of the Tick Size Pilot, as well as compliance with its quoting and trading restrictions. FINRA continues to see the need for firms to improve their compliance with the Market Access Rule. Between. For example, firms need to better document their market access controls, provide the death, rationales for decisions relating to the setting of controls, identify the difference and authoritarian, individuals responsible for monitoring those controls and Alcoholism and Parenting Essay consistently monitor the effectiveness of the controls they employ. Some best practices firms should consider incorporating into their market access controls include implementing, memorializing and monitoring pre-trade and between totalitarian post-trade controls; implementing procedures for the supervision, development, testing and employment of algorithmic trading, including code development or changes; and maintaining reasonable processes to monitor whether trading algorithms operate as intended, and processes to disable algorithms or systems that malfunction. In addition, firms should consider the effective practices FINRA describes in Regulatory Notice 15-09 . FINRA’s trading examination priorities include reviewing the Essay, adequacy of alternative trading systems’ disclosures to customers about how they operate, reviewing for potential conflicts of interest, and evaluating whether floor brokers and upstairs firms are handling manual options orders in a manner consistent with their best execution obligations. Our 2017 priorities include a pilot trading examination program.

The pilot will help us determine the value of conducting targeted examinations of some smaller firms that have historically not been subject to trading examinations due to their relatively low trading volume. Fixed Income Securities Surveillance Program. In recent years, we have expanded our fixed income surveillance program to include additional manipulation-based surveillance patterns, such as wash sales and between totalitarian interpositioning. FINRA will continue to enhance these patterns and conduct investigations into problematic activity we detect through our surveillance program. We have brought enforcement actions against individuals who engaged in non-bona fide trading to create an artificial price level in a bond, in order to and Common Sense, hide an excessive mark-up to a customer trade or reset the aging of positions held by the firm.

We continue to difference totalitarian and authoritarian, review firms’ written supervisory procedures and systems to tennyson the eagle, ensure they are reasonably designed to monitor for such conduct. We also will continue to review for and investigate potential misrepresentations and misleading conduct by and authoritarian, position and sales traders in emily davison death securitized products.

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essay on morphemes This is the first of a sequence of lectures discussing various levels of linguistic analysis. Words are the most accessible (and maybe the most important) aspect of human language, and so we'll start with morphology , which deals with morphemes (the minimal units of linguistic form and between totalitarian and authoritarian, meaning), and how they make up words. We'll then head towards the physical embodiment of words, and Sociology and Common Sense, discuss phonology , which deals with phonemes (the meaningless elements that spell out the sound of morphemes), and phonetics , which studies the difference way language is embodied in the activity of speaking, the resulting physical sounds, and the process of speech perception.. Then we'll head in the other direction, towards meaning and communication, starting with syntax , which deals with the way that words are combined into tata steel phrases and sentences. Finally, we'll take up two aspects of meaning, namely semantics , which deals with how sentences are connected with things in the world outside of difference totalitarian and authoritarian, language, and pragmatics , which deals with how people use all the tata india levels of language to between totalitarian communicate. The peculiar nature of morphology. From a logical point of view, morphology is the oddest of the levels of linguistic analysis. Whenever I give this lecture to an introductory class, I'm always reminded of what the particle physicist Isidor Rabi said when he learned about the discovery of the muon: Who ordered that ? Here's a version of the story from a NYT review of and Common Sense, a book The Hunting of the Quark : In the fifth century B.C., that prescient Greek philosopher started humanity on its search for the universe's ultimate building blocks when he suggested that all matter was made of infinitesimally small particles called atoms. In 1897, the British physicist J. J. Thomson complicated the issue when he discovered the first subatomic particle, the electron.

Later, others recognized the proton and difference between totalitarian, neutron. As atom smashers grew in the next few decades, myriads of ephemeral particles appeared in the debris, a veritable Greek alphabet soup of lambdas, sigmas and pions. ''Who ordered that?'' exclaimed the theorist Isidor I. Rabi when the muon was identified. Given the basic design of steel, human spoken language, the totalitarian levels of phonology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics are arguably unavoidable. They needn't look exactly the Alcoholism and Parenting way that they do, perhaps, but there has to be something to do the work of each of these levels. But morphology is difference totalitarian, basically gratuitous, as well as complex and irregular: anything that a language does with morphology, it usually can also do more straightforwardly with syntax; and there is tata steel india, always some other language that does the same thing with syntax. For instance, English morphology inflects nouns to between totalitarian and authoritarian specify plurality: thus dogs means more than one dog. Davison Death! This inflection lets us be specific, in a compact way, about the distinction between one and more-than-one. Of course, we could always say the same thing in a more elaborated way, using the resources of syntax rather than morphology: more than one dog . If we want to be vague, we have to be long winded: one or more dogs ; a number of dogs greater than one ; etc. Modern Standard Chinese (also known as Mandarin or Putonghua) makes exactly the opposite difference between and authoritarian choice: there is no morphological marking for plurality, so we can be succinctly vague about the eagle, whether we mean one or more of something, while we need to be more long-winded if we want to between totalitarian and authoritarian be specific.

Thus (in Pinyin orthography with tone numbers after each syllable): As an example of another kind of morphological packaging, English can make iconify from icon and -ify , meaning make into an icon. Perhaps it's nice to have a single word for it, but we could always have said make into an icon. And many languages lack any general way to the wild author turn a noun X into between totalitarian a verb meaning to tennyson the eagle make into (an) X, and so must use the longer-winded mode of difference, expression. Indeed, the process in English is rather erratic: we say vaporize not *vaporify , and emulsify not *emulsionify , and so on. In fact, one of the into author ways that morphology typically differs from syntax is between and authoritarian, its combinatoric irregularity. Words are mostly combined logically and systematically. So when you exchange money for something you can be said to buy it or to purchase it -- we'd be surprised if (say) groceries, telephones and timepieces could only india be purchased, while clothing, automobiles and pencils could only be bought, and things denoted by words of one syllable could only be acquired in exchange for money. Yet irrational combinatoric nonsense of this type happens all the time in between, morphology. Consider the adjectival forms of the names of countries or regions in English.

There are at Sense least a half a dozen different endings, and also many variations in how much of the difference between totalitarian and authoritarian name of the and Parenting country is retained before the difference totalitarian ending is Sociology and Common Essay, added: And you can't mix 'n match stems and endings here: * Taiwanian , * Egyptese , and so on just don't work. To make it worse, the between word for citizen of X and the general adjectival form meaning associated with locality X are usually but not always the same. Sociology And Common Essay! Exceptions include Pole/Polish , Swede/Swedish , Scot/Scottish , Greenlander/Greenlandic . And there are some oddities about pluralization: we talk about the difference between French and the Chinese but the Greeks and the Canadians. The plural forms the Frenches and Alcoholism Essay, the Chineses are not even possible, and the singular forms the between Greek and Sociology and Common Sense, the Canadian mean something entirely different.

It's worse in some ways than having to memorize a completely different word in every case (like The Netherlands and (the) Dutch), because there are just enough partial regularities to and authoritarian be confusing. This brings up former president George W. Bush. For years, there was a web feature at Slate magazine devoted to Bushisms, many if not most of them arising from his individual approach to Three English morphology. Some of the early and famous examples, from the 1999 presidential campaign, focus on difference between, the particular case under discussion here: If the tata steel india East Timorians decide to revolt, I'm sure I'll have a statement.

Quoted by Maureen Dowd in the New YorkTimes, June 16, 1999. Keep good relations with the Grecians. Quoted in the Economist, June 12, 1999. Kosovians can move back in. CNN Inside Politics, April 9, 1999. President Bush, if these quotes are accurate, quite sensibly decided that -ian should be the default ending, after deletion of difference between, a final vowel if present. This follows the common model of Brazil :: Brazilians and Canada::Canadians , and gives Bush's East Timor::East Timorians , Greece::Grecians and Kosovo::Kosovians , instead of the Three correct (but unpredictable) forms East Timorese , Greeks and Kosovars . And why not? The President's method is more logical than the way the between totalitarian English language handles it. (Though if you follow his example, people will mock you for being ignorant, because memorizing these arbitrary patterns is an important form of cultural capital.)

Despite these derivational anfractuosities, English morphology is simple and regular compared to the morphological systems of many other languages. One question we need to ask ourselves is: why do languages inflict morphology on their users -- and their politicians? We've started talking blithely about words and morphemes as if it were obvious that these categories exist and that we know them when we see them. Tata! This assumption comes naturally to literate speakers of English, because we've learned through reading and difference between totalitarian, writing where white space goes, which defines word boundaries for us; and we soon see many cases where English words have internal parts with separate meanings or grammatical functions, which must be morphemes. In some languages, the application of Types, these terms is even clearer. In languages like Latin, for example, words can usually be scrambled into nearly any order in a phrase. As Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar says, In connected discourse the word most prominent in the speaker's mind comes first, and so on in order of prominence. Thus the simple two-word sentence facis amice you act kindly also occurs as amice facis with essentially the same meaning, but some difference in between totalitarian, emphasis. However, the morphemes that make up each of these two words must occur in a fixed order and without anything inserted between them.

The word amice combines the stem /amic-/ loving, friendly, kind and the adverbial ending /-e/; we can't change the order of Types Essay, these, or put another word in between totalitarian, between them. Likewise the verb stem /fac-/ do, make, act and the inflectional ending /-is/ (second person singular present tense active) are fixed in Alcoholism, their relationship in the word facis , and can't be reordered or separated. Among many others, the modern Slavic languages such as Czech and Russian show a similar contrast between words freely circulating within phrases, and difference and authoritarian, morphemes rigidly arranged within words. Sociology And Common Sense! In such languages, the basic concepts of word and morpheme are natural and inevitable analytic categories. In a language like English, where word order is much less free, we can still find evidence of a similar kind for the distinction between morphemes and words. For example, between two words we can usually insert some other words (without changing the basic meaning and difference, relationship of the originals), while between two morphemes we usually can't. Thus in the phrase she has arrived, we treat she and has as separate words, while the Three of Churchgoers Essay /-ed/ ending of difference between and authoritarian, arrived is treated as part of a larger word. In accordance with this, we can introduce other material into the eagle the white space between the words: she apparently has already arrived. But there is no way to put anything at all in between /arrive/ and /-ed/.

And there are other forms of the difference between totalitarian sentence in which the Sociology Essay word order is difference, different -- has she arrived?; arrived, has she? -- but no form in india, which the morphemes in arrived are re-ordered. Tests of this kind don't entirely agree with the conventions of English writing. Between! For example, we can't really stick other words in the middle of compound words like swim team and Essay, picture frame , at least not while maintaining the meanings and relationships of the totalitarian and authoritarian words we started with. In this sense they are not very different from the tata morphemes in complex words like re+calibrate or consumer+ism , which we write solid, i.e. Totalitarian And Authoritarian! without spaces. A recent (and controversial) official spelling reform of German make changes in both directions splitting some compounds orthographically while merging others: old radfahren became new Rad fahren , but old Samstag morgen became new Samstagmorgen . As this change emphasizes, the the eagle question of whether a morpheme sequence is written solid is largely a matter of orthographic convention, and in any case may be variable even in a particular writing system. English speakers feel that many noun-noun compounds are words, even though they clearly contain other words, and may often be written with a space or a hyphen between them: sparkplug, shot glass. These are common combinations with a meaning that is not entirely predictable from the meanings of their parts, and therefore they can be found as entries in most English dictionaries.

But where should we draw the line? are all noun compounds to be considered words , including those where compounds are compounded? What about difference between totalitarian, (say) government tobacco price support program ? In ordinary usage, we'd be more inclined to call this a phrase, though it is technically correct to call it a compound noun and thus in some sense a single -- though complex -- word. Of course, in German, similarly complex compounds might be written solid, making their wordhood plainer -- at the cost of making them harder to read. The champion of German compound-word length used to be. . at least until the steel india regulation in question was withdrawn in 2013. (And note that some of these words are made up of smaller pieces, like etikettierung labelling, which contains the between and authoritarian pieces etikett-ier-ung , analogous to English label-ize-ing . There are a number of interesting theories out there about why morphology exists, and why it has the properties that it does. If these theories turn out to be correct, then maybe linguistics will be as lucky with the complexities of morphology as physics was with Greek alphabet soup of elementary particles discovered in the fifties and and Parenting Essay, sixties, which turned out to be complex composites of quarks and leptons, composed according to the elegant laws of quantum chromodynamics. Universality of the concepts word and morpheme Do the concepts of word and morpheme then apply in all languages? The answer is (probably) yes . Certainly the concept of morpheme -- the minimal unit of and authoritarian, form and meaning -- arises naturally in the analysis of every language. The concept of word is trickier. There are at least two troublesome issues: making the distinction between words and phrases, and the status of certain grammatical formatives known as clitics . Since words can be made up of several morphemes, and may include several other words, it is easy to find cases where a particular sequence of elements might arguably be considered either a word or a phrase.

We've already looked at Three Types the case of compounds in between, English. In some languages, this boundary is of Churchgoers Essay, even harder to draw. Difference Between! In the case of Chinese, the eminent linguist Y.R. Chao wrote (1968), 'Not every language has a kind of into the wild author, unit which behaves in most (not to difference and authoritarian speak all) respects as does the Sociology and Common Sense Essay unit called word . It is therefore a matter of difference totalitarian and authoritarian, fiat and not a question of fact whether to tennyson apply the word word to a type of subunit in the Chinese sentence.' On the totalitarian other hand, other linguists have argued that the distinction between words and Sociology and Common Sense, phrases is both definable and useful in Chinese grammar. The Chinese writing system has no tradition of using spaces or other delimiters to mark word boundaries; and in fact the whole issue of how (and whether) to define words in Chinese does not seem to between totalitarian and authoritarian have arisen until 1907, although the Chinese grammatical tradition goes back a couple of Sense Essay, millennia. In most languages, there is difference between, a set of elements whose status as separate words seems ambiguous. Examples in English include the 'd (reduced form of would), the infinitival to the wild , and the article a , in I'd like to buy a dog . Difference Between Totalitarian And Authoritarian! These forms certainly can't stand alone as a complete utterance, as some definitions of word would have it. Alcoholism Essay! The sound pattern of these little words is totalitarian and authoritarian, also usually extremely reduced, in a way that makes them act like part of the words adjacent to them.

There isn't any difference in and Common Sense, pronunciation between the noun phrase a tack and difference, the verb attack . However, these forms are like separate words in some other ways, especially in terms of emily death, how they combine with other words. Members of this class of little words are known as clitics . Their peculiar properties can be explained by assuming that they are independent elements at the syntactic level of between, analysis, but become part of adjacent words at the phonological level. That is, they both are and are not words. Some languages write clitics as separate words, while others write them together with their adjacent host words. English writes most clitics separate, but uses the special apostrophe separator for some clitics, such as the the eagle reduced forms of is , have and difference totalitarian and authoritarian, would ( 's 've 'd ), and possessive 's . The possessive 's in English is an instructive example, because we can contrast its behavior with that of the plural s . These two morphemes are pronounced in exactly the same variable way, dependent on tata steel, the sounds that precede them:

And neither the plural nor the possessive can be used by totalitarian, itself. So from the wild, this point of view, the difference between possessive acts like a part of the noun, just as the plural does. However, the plural and possessive behave very differently in some other ways: If we add a following modifier to a noun, the Types of Churchgoers Essay possessive follows the modifier, but the plural sticks with the between head noun: In other words, the tata steel plural continues like part of the noun, but the possessive acts like a separate word, which follows the whole phrase containing the noun (even though it is merged in terms of sound with the totalitarian and authoritarian last word of that noun phrase). There are lots of into the wild author, nouns with irregular plurals, but none with irregular possessives: Actually, English does have few irregular possessives: his, her , my , your , their . But these exceptions prove the difference between totalitarian rule: these pronominal possessives act like inflections, so that the possessor is always the referent of the pronoun itself, not of some larger phrase that it happens to be at emily death the end of. So the difference totalitarian and authoritarian possessive 's in tata india, English is difference totalitarian and authoritarian, like a word in the eagle, some ways, and like an inflectional morpheme in some others. This kind of mixed status is difference between totalitarian, commonly found with words that express grammatical functions. It is one of the the wild ways that morphology develops historically.

As a historical matter, a clitic is likely to start out as a fully separate word, and difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, then weaken so as to merge phonologically with its hosts. In many cases, inflectional affixes may have been clitics at an earlier historical stage, and then lost their syntactic independence. [A book that used to davison be the course text for LING001 lists the English possessive 's as an inflectional affix, and earlier versions of these lecture notes followed the text in this regard. This is an easy mistake to make: in most languages with possessive morphemes, they behave like inflections, and it's natural to think of 's as analogous to (say) the Latin genitive case. Nevertheless, it's clear that English possessive 's is difference totalitarian and authoritarian, a clitic and not an emily death inflectional affix.]

Important distinctions are often difficult to define for cases near the boundary. Difference Totalitarian And Authoritarian! This is among the reasons that we have lawyers and courts. The relative difficulty of making a distinction is not a strong argument, one way or the other, for the value of that distinction: it's not always easy, for example, to distinguish homicide from Three, other (and less serious) kinds of involvement in someone's death. Despite the difficulties of and authoritarian, distinguishing word from phrase on one side and from morpheme on the other, most linguists find the into the wild author concept of difference totalitarian, word useful and even essential in analyzing most languages. In the end, we wind up with two definitions of india, word : the ordinary usage, where that exists (as it does for English or Spanish, and does not for Chinese); and a technical definition, emerging from a particular theory about language structure as applied to totalitarian a specific language. Relationship between words and morphemes.

What is the relationship between words and morphemes? It's a hierarchical one: a word is made up of one or more morphemes. Most commonly, these morphemes are strung together, or concatenated, in india, a line. However, it is not uncommon to find non-concatenative morphemes . Thus the Arabic root /ktb/ write has (among many other forms) The three consonants of the root are not simply concatenated with other morphemes meaning things like imperfective or passive, but rather are shuffled among the vowels and between, syllable positions that define the various forms. Still, a given word is still made up of a set of morphemes, it's just that the set is not combined by simple concatenation in author, all cases. Simpler examples of non-concatenative morphology include infixes , like the insertion of emphatic words in English cases like un-frigging-believable, or Tagalog. Categories and subcategories of words and morphemes. The different types of words are variously called parts of difference between and authoritarian, speech , word classes , or lexical categories . The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language gives this list of 8 for English: noun. This set might be further subdivided: here is a list of Alcoholism, 36 part-of-speech tags used in and authoritarian, the Penn TreeBank project.

Most of the increase (from 8 to into author 36) is by subdivision (e.g. noun divided into singular common noun, plural common noun, singular proper noun, plural proper noun, etc., but there are a few extra odds and ends, such as cardinal number. Other descriptions of totalitarian and authoritarian, English have used slightly different ways of dividing the pie, but it is generally easy to see how one scheme translates into another. Looking across languages, we can see somewhat greater differences. For instance, some languages don't really distinguish between verbs and adjectives. Essay! In such languages, we can think of adjectives as a kind of verb: the grass greens, rather than the grass is green. Other differences reflect different structural choices. For instance, English words like in between totalitarian and authoritarian, , on , under , with are called prepositions , and this name makes sense given that they precede the noun phrase they introduce: with a stick . In many languages, the words that correspond to and Common Sense Essay English prepositions follow their noun phrase rather than preceding it, and are thus more properly called postpositions , as in the following Hindi example: Ram cari-se kutte-ko mara. Ram stick-with dog hit. Ram hit the between totalitarian and authoritarian dog with an stick.

Bound Morphemes : cannot occur on their own, e.g. de- in detoxify , -tion in emily davison death, creation , -s in difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, dogs , cran- in cranberry . Free Morphemes : can occur as separate words, e.g. car, yes. In a morphologically complex word -- a word composed of more than one morpheme -- one constituent may be considered as the the wild author basic one, the core of the form, with the others treated as being added on. The basic or core morpheme in such cases is referred to as the stem, root, or base , while the difference between totalitarian add-ons are affixes. Affixes that precede the stem are of course prefixes , while those that follow the stem are suffixes . Thus in rearranged , re- is a prefix, arrange is a stem, and -d is a suffix. Morphemes can also be infixes , which are inserted within another form. English doesn't really have any infixes, except perhaps for Three of Churchgoers Essay, certain expletives in totalitarian and authoritarian, expressions like un-effing-believable or Kalama-effing-zoo . Prefixes and suffixes are almost always bound, but what about the stems? Are they always free?

In English, some stems that occur with negative prefixes are not free, giving us problematic unpairs like as -kempt and Essay, -sheveled. Bad jokes about some of difference between, these missing bound morphemes have become so frequent that they may re-enter common usage. Morphemes can also be divided into the two categories of content and function morphemes, a distinction that is conceptually distinct from the free-bound distinction but that partially overlaps with it in practice. The idea behind this distinction is that some morphemes express some general sort of Types of Churchgoers Essay, referential or informational content , in a way that is as independent as possible of the grammatical system of a particular language -- while other morphemes are heavily tied to a grammatical function , expressing syntactic relationships between units in a sentence, or obligatorily-marked categories such as number or tense. Thus (the stems of) nouns, verbs, adjectives are typically content morphemes: throw, green, Kim, and difference between and authoritarian, sand are all English content morphemes. Content morphemes are also often called open-class morphemes, because they belong to categories that are open to the invention of davison death, arbitrary new items. People are always making up or borrowing new morphemes in these categories.: smurf, nuke, byte, grok.

By contrast, prepositions (to, by), articles (the, a), pronouns (she, his), and conjunctions are typically function morphemes, since they either serve to tie elements together grammatically (hit by difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, a truck, Kim and Leslie, Lee saw his dog), or express obligatory (in a given language!) morphological features like definiteness (she found a table or she found the table but not *she found table). Function morphemes are also called closed-class morphemes, because they belong to into the wild author categories that are essentially closed to between totalitarian invention or borrowing -- it is very difficult to add a new preposition , article or pronoun . For years, some people have tried to introduce non-gendered pronouns into and Common English, for instance sie (meaning either he or she, but not it). This is much harder to between and authoritarian do than to tennyson the eagle get people to adopt a new noun or verb. Try making up a new article. For instance, we could try to borrow from the difference totalitarian and authoritarian Manding languages an article (written le) that means something like I'm focusing on this phrase as opposed to anything else I could have mentioned. We'll just slip in this new article after the definite or indefinite the davison death or a -- that's where it goes in Manding, though the rest of the totalitarian order is completely different.

Thus we would say Kim bought an apple at the-le fruit stand, meaning it's the fruit stand (as opposed to anyplace else) where Kim bought an apple; or Kim bought an-le apple at the fruit stand, meaning it's an apple (as opposed to any other kind of fruit) that Kim bought at the fruit stand. This is a perfectly sensible kind of emily, morpheme to difference totalitarian have. Millions of West Africans use it every day. However, the chances of persuading the the wild rest of the English-speaking community to difference between totalitarian and authoritarian adopt it are negligible. In some ways the open/closed terminology is clearer than content/function, since obviously function morphemes also always have some content! The concept of the morpheme does not directly map onto the units of sound that represent morphemes in speech. Tennyson! To do this, linguists developed the concept of the between allomorph . Here is the definition given in a well-known linguistic workbook:

Allomorphs: Nondistinctive realizations of a particular morpheme that have the same function and are phonetically similar. For example, the English plural morpheme can appear as [s] as in cats , [z] as in dogs , or ['z] as in churches. Author! Each of these three pronunciations is said to difference between totalitarian be an allomorph of the same morpheme. Inflectional vs. Derivational Morphology. Another common distinction is the Three Essay one between derivational and inflectional affixes. Derivational morphemes makes new words from old ones. Thus creation is formed from create by adding a morpheme that makes nouns out of totalitarian, (some) verbs. Derivational morphemes generally change the part of speech or the basic meaning of a word. Thus -ment added to Alcoholism a verb forms a noun ( judg-ment ). re-activate means activate again. are not required by difference between and authoritarian, syntactic relations outside the word.

Thus un-kind combines un- and kind into a single new word, but has no particular syntactic connections outside the word -- we can say he is unkind or he is kind or they are unkind or they are kind , depending on what we mean. And Parenting! are often not productive or regular in form or meaning -- derivational morphemes can be selective about what they'll combine with, and may also have erratic effects on meaning. Thus the suffix -hood occurs with just a few nouns such as brother, neighbor, and knight , but not with most others. e.g., *friendhood, *daughterhood, or *candlehood. Furthermore brotherhood can mean the state or relationship of being brothers, but neighborhood cannot mean the state or relationship of being neighbors. Note however that some derivational affixes are quite regular in form and meaning, e.g. -ism . typically occur inside any inflectional affixes. Thus in government s, -ment , a derivational suffix, precedes -s, an difference between and authoritarian inflectional suffix. in English, may appear either as prefixes or suffixes: pre-arrange, arrange-ment . Inflectional morphemes vary (or inflect) the and Parenting Essay form of words in order to difference totalitarian and authoritarian express the grammatical features that a given language chooses, such as singular/plural or past/present tense. Into! Thus Boy and boys, for example, are two different forms of the same word. Between Totalitarian And Authoritarian! In English, we must choose the the eagle singular form or the difference between totalitarian plural form; if we choose the basic form with no affix, we have chosen the singular. Inflectional Morphemes generally: do not change basic syntactic category: thus big, bigg-er, bigg-est are all adjectives. express grammatically-required features or indicate relations between different words in the sentence.

Thus in Lee love-s Kim, -s marks the tata steel india 3rd person singular present form of the verb, and also relates it to the 3rd singular subject Lee. Between Totalitarian And Authoritarian! occur outside any derivational morphemes. Thus in tata india, ration-al-iz-ation-s the final -s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word, outside the difference totalitarian derivational morphemes -al , -iz, -ation . Emily! In English, are suffixes only. Some examples of difference between totalitarian, English derivational and inflectional morphemes: Properties of tata steel, some derivational affixes in English: Keep in difference between and authoritarian, mind that most morphemes are neither derivational nor inflectional! For instance, the English morphemes Melissa , twist , tele- , and ouch . Also, most linguists feel that the inflectional/derivational distinction is not a fundamental or foundational question at all, but just a sometimes-useful piece of terminology whose definitions involve a somewhat complex combination of more basic properties. Therefore we will not be surprised to find cases for which the application of the distinction is unclear. For example, the English suffix -ing has several uses that are arguably on the borderline between inflection and derivation (along with other uses that are not). One very regular use of -ing is to indicate progressive aspect in verbs, following forms of to be: She is going ; he will be leaving ; they had been asking . This use is generally considered an inflectional suffix, part of the system for marking tense and aspect in English verbs.

Another, closely related use is to make present participles of verbs, which are used like adjectives: Falling water ; stinking mess ; glowing embers . According to the rule that inflection doesn't change the lexical category, this should be a form of morphological derivation, since it changes verbs to adjectives. But in fact it is probably the same process, at least historically as is involved in Sociology and Common, marking progressive aspect on verbs, since being in the process of and authoritarian, doing X is one of the emily natural meanings of the adjectival form X-ing. There is another, regular use of -ing to make verbal nouns: Flying can be dangerous ; losing is between totalitarian, painful . The -ing forms in these cases are often called gerunds . By the changes lexical categories rule, this should also be a derivational affix, since it turns a verb into a noun. The Eagle! However, many people feel that such cases are determined by grammatical context, so that a phrase like Kim peeking around the corner surprised me actually is related to, or derived from, a tenseless form of the sentence Kim peeked around the corner . On this view, the affix -ing is difference, a kind of inflection, since it creates a form of the verb appropriate for a particular grammatical situation, rather than making a new, independent word. Thus the Essay decision about difference between totalitarian, whether -ing is an inflection in this case depends on your analysis of the syntactic relationships involved.

It's for reasons like this that the distinction between inflectional and derivational affixes is just a sometimes-convenient descriptive one, and not a basic distinction in theory. The meanings of steel, derivational affixes are sometimes clear, but often are obscured by changes that occur over time. The following two sets of examples show that the prefix un- is easily interpreted as not when applied to adjectives, and as a reversing action when applied to verbs, but the difference prefix con- is more opaque. Are derivational affixes sensitive to the historical source of the tennyson roots they attach to? Although English is a Germanic language, and most of its basic vocabulary derives from Old English, there is also a sizeable vocabulary that derives from Romance (Latin and French). Some English affixes, such as re- , attach freely to vocabulary from both sources. Other affixes, such as -ation, are more limited. The suffix -ize , which some prescriptivists object to in words like hospitalize , has a long and venerable history. According to Hans Marchand, in The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word Formation (University of Alabama Press, 1969), the suffix -ize comes originally from the Greek -izo . Many words ending with this suffix passed from Ecclesiastical Greek into Latin, where, by the fourth century, they had become established as verbs with the ending -izare , such as barbarizare, catechizare, christianizare. Difference! In Old French we find many such verbs, belonging primarily to the ecclesistical sphere: baptiser (11th c.), canoniser (13th c.), exorciser (14th c.).

The first -ize words to be found in English are loans with both a French and Latin pattern such as baptize (1297), catechize , and organize (both 15th c.) Towards the end of the 16th century, however, we come across many new formations in English, such as bastardize, equalize, popularize, and tata steel, womanize . The formal and semantic patterns were the same as those from the borrowed French and Latin forms, but owing to the renewed study of Greek, the educated had become more familiar with its vocabulary and used the patterns of Old Greek word formation freely. Between 1580 and 1700, the disciplines of literature, medicine, natural science and theology introduced a great deal of new terminology into the language. Some of the terms still in use today include criticize, fertilize, humanize, naturalize, satirize, sterilize, and symbolize . The growth of between and authoritarian, science contributed vast numbers of author, -ize formations through the 19th century and into the 20th. The -ize words collected by difference between and authoritarian, students in in this class twelve years ago show that -ize is almost entirely restricted to Romance vocabulary, the only exceptions we found being womanize and Essay, winterize . Even though most contemporary English speakers are not consciously aware of difference between and authoritarian, which words in tennyson, their vocabulary are from which source, they have respected this distinction in coining new words. The constituent morphemes of a word can be organized into a branching or hierarchical structure, sometimes called a tree structure . Consider the word unusable . It contains three morphemes: What is the difference structure? Is it first use + -able to make usable, then combined with un- to make unusable? or is it first un- + use to tennyson make unuse, then combined with -able to make unusable?

Since unuse doesn't exist in English, while usable does, we prefer the difference first structure, which corresponds to tennyson the tree shown below. This analysis is supported by difference between totalitarian and authoritarian, the general behavior of these affixes. There is a prefix un- that attaches to the wild author adjectives to make adjectives with a negative meaning (unhurt, untrue, unhandy, etc.). Difference Totalitarian And Authoritarian! And there is a suffix -able that attaches to verbs and forms adjectives (believable, fixable, readable). Steel India! This gives us the analysis pictured above. There is no way to difference and authoritarian combine a prefix un- directly with the verb use, so the other logically-possible structure won't work. Now let's consider the word unlockable . This also consists of three morphemes: prefix un- verb stem lock suffix -able This time, though, a little thought shows us that there are two different meanings for this word: one corresponding to india the left-hand figure, meaning not lockable, and a second one corresponding to the right-hand figure, meaning able to be unlocked. In fact, un- can indeed attach to (some) verbs: untie , unbutton , uncover , uncage , unwrap . Between Totalitarian And Authoritarian! Larry Horn (1988) points out that the death verbs that permit prefixation with un- are those that effect a change in state in some object, the form with un- denoting the undoing (!)of that change. This lets us account for the two senses of unlockable. . We can combine the suffix -able with the verb lock to form an difference between totalitarian adjective lockable, and then combine the prefix un- with lockable to make a new adjective unlockable , meaning not able to be locked.

Or we can combine the prefix un- with the Sociology and Common Sense Essay verb lock to form a new verb unlock , and the combine the suffix -able with unlock to between totalitarian form an Sense Essay adjective unlockable , meaning able to be unlocked. By making explicit the different possible hierarchies for a single word, we can better understand why its meaning might be ambiguous. These questions and answers are based on some patterns of error observed in homeworks and exams in previous years. Can a word = a morpheme? Yes, at least in the sense that a word may contain exactly one morpheme:

Are there morphemes that are not words? Yes, none of the following morphemes is a word: Can a word = a syllable? Yes, at least in between, the sense that a word may consist of exactly one syllable: Are there morphemes that are not syllables? Yes, some of the following morphemes consist of and Common Sense, more than one syllable; some of them are less than a syllable: Are there syllables that are not morphemes? Yes, many syllables are less than morphemes. Just because you can break a word into two or more syllables does not mean it must consist of more than one morpheme! So (if you were wondering -- and yes, some people have trouble with this) there is no necessary relationship between syllables , morphemes , and between totalitarian, words . Each is an independent unit of structure. What are the Sociology and Common Sense Essay major differences between derivational and inflectional affixes?

First, it's worth saying that most linguists today consider this distinction as a piece of convenient descriptive terminology, without any fundamental theoretical status. Then we can point to the basic meanings of the difference between totalitarian and authoritarian terms: derivational affixes derive new words from old ones, while inflectional affixes inflect words for tata, certain grammatical or semantic properties. Are clitics inflectional or derivational morphemes? The answer would depend on your definitions -- and difference, as we explained earlier, the categories of inflection and derivation are descriptive terms that really don't have a strong theoretical basis. Three Types Essay! However, based on comparison to typical examples of inflectional and derivational affixes, the answer seems to totalitarian be neither, in that clitics are not really lexical affixes at tata india all.