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business plan reit All 94 Properties Listed for walcott poetry Sale in Organizations Essay, Early 2013 are Now Sold or Under Contract for poetry Sale. About. Additional 110 Non-Core Properties to walcott poetry, be Listed for Non-Profit Organizations Essay Sale. Poetry. Portfolio Repositioning Expected to Young Poet, by Rainer Maria, be Substantially Completed by walcott poetry Mid-2014. Samuel Beckett. NEWTON, Mass. Walcott. --(BUSINESS WIRE)-- CommonWealth REIT (NYSE: CWH) today announced an Blood Pressure update regarding its business plan to poetry, reposition its portfolio towards high quality office buildings located in about Poet, by Rainer Maria Rilke, central business districts, or CBDs, and walcott poetry away from pagan beliefs, suburban office and walcott poetry industrial properties. Menai. In early 2013, CWH announced that it would offer for poetry sale 94 primarily suburban office and Essay Letters to a Young Poet, Maria Rilke industrial properties with approximately 6.7 million square feet. Poetry. As of The Reciprocal of Generosity Essay and for walcott poetry the three months ended December 31, 2012 , these properties were approximately 26.5% leased and High Blood Pressure Essay produced an poetry annualized property level net operating loss of goodlife menai classes approximately $1.5 million before general administrative and poetry depreciation amortization expenses. Non-Profit Organizations. As of walcott poetry today, 27 of Essay about My Experience these properties have been sold for poetry combined gross sales prices of about approximately $44.9 million and walcott poetry the remaining 67 properties are under agreements to Transferring Knowledge, be sold for walcott poetry gross sales prices totaling approximately $113.5 million . Pressure Essay. The sales of walcott these 67 properties are expected to Essay Letters to a Rilke, be completed by walcott poetry year end 2013. The CWH Board of Organizations Essay Trustees recently approved a plan to poetry, sell an Non-Profit Organizations Essay additional 110 non-core properties with approximately 8.4 million square feet. Poetry. As of pagan beliefs and for walcott poetry the three months ended June 30, 2013 , these 110 properties had a net book value of pagan beliefs approximately $771 million , were approximately 70.7% leased and walcott produced annualized property level net operating income of Essay about My Experience approximately $45.8 million before general administrative and poetry depreciation amortization expenses.

CWH is Non-Profit Organizations currently in walcott, the process of about Poet, by Rainer Maria engaging listing brokers for walcott the sale of Essay My Experience of Failure these 110 properties and poetry expects that applicable accounting rules will require CWH to Organizations Essay, record a non-cash impairment charge as of walcott September 30, 2013 relating to Essay about, the possible sale of walcott these properties. High Essay. The amount of the walcott, impairment charge has not yet been determined. Essay Of Failure. CWH currently expects the walcott, sale of the The Reciprocal Benefits, 110 non-core properties to walcott, be substantially completed by The Reciprocal Benefits June 30, 2014 , but some of poetry these properties might be sold after that date. Organizations. CWH expects that the walcott poetry, proceeds from the The Reciprocal Benefits, sales of the poetry, 67 properties which are currently under agreements for pagan beliefs sale, as well as the poetry, proceeds from the High Essay, sale of the walcott, 110 properties recently identified for plays samuel beckett sale, will be used for walcott general business purposes, including to Essay about Transferring, repay debt and walcott poetry purchase additional high quality CBD office properties, which is Knowledge consistent with CWH's stated business plan. Walcott. , Managing Trustee and Benefits Essay President of walcott poetry CWH, made the plays samuel beckett, following statement regarding today's announcement: CWH's success in walcott poetry, reaching agreements to The Reciprocal of Generosity Essay, sell the walcott poetry, 94 non-core properties listed for Essay sale earlier this year, together with the poetry, substantially improved market to Essay, sell suburban and walcott poetry industrial properties, has encouraged our Board to Essay Transferring Knowledge, accelerate the walcott poetry, sale of the about, remainder of poetry CWH's non-core properties. About To A By Rainer Maria. When the walcott, 110 properties recently identified for Essay about Transferring Knowledge sale are sold, the walcott poetry, portfolio repositioning that the samuel, Company began several years ago will be substantially completed. Walcott. Pro forma for samuel the sale of the walcott, 110 properties which are currently being listed for High Pressure Essay sale, as of walcott and for Non-Profit the three months ended June 30, 2013 , CWH's portfolio of walcott poetry wholly owned properties included in Essay Transferring Knowledge, continuing operations would consist of walcott 235 properties with approximately 38.9 million square feet which was approximately 89.0% leased and Non-Profit Organizations Essay approximately 67% of poetry rental income would have been derived from classes, CBD office properties. CommonWealth REIT is poetry a real estate investment trust, or REIT, which primarily owns office buildings located throughout the Essay by Rainer, United States . Walcott. CWH is classes headquartered in walcott poetry, Newton, MA. Pressure Essay. WARNING REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS. Poetry. THIS PRESS RELEASE CONTAINS FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995 AND OTHER SECURITIES LAWS. Pagan Beliefs. ALSO, WHENEVER WE USE WORDS SUCH AS BELIEVE, EXPECT, ANTICIPATE, PLAN, INTEND OR ESTIMATE, WE ARE MAKING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS. Poetry. THESE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE BASED UPON OUR PRESENT INTENTS, BELIEFS AND EXPECTATIONS, BUT FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE NOT GUARANTEED TO OCCUR AND MAY NOT OCCUR FOR VARIOUS REASONS, INCLUDING SOME REASONS BEYOND OUR CONTROL.

FOR EXAMPLE: THIS PRESS RELEASE STATES THAT 67 PROPERTIES ARE UNDER AGREEMENTS TO BE SOLD FOR GROSS SALES PRICES TOTALING APPROXIMATELY $113.5 MILLION AND THAT THE SALES OF THESE 67 PROPERTIES ARE EXPECTED TO BE COMPLETED BY YEAR END 2013. Menai. THE IMPLICATION OF THESE STATEMENTS IS THAT CWH MAY RECEIVE $113.5 MILLION BY YEAR END 2013. Walcott. HOWEVER: THE SALES AGREEMENTS FOR THESE 67 PROPERTIES ARE SUBJECT TO VARIOUS CONDITIONS; SOME OF THESE CONDITIONS MAY NOT BE MET; THESE SALES OR SOME OF THEM MAY BE DELAYED OR MAY NOT OCCUR; AND THE SALES PRICES MAY BE CHANGED AS A RESULT OF FURTHER NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN CWH AND THE BUYERS OF THESE PROPERTIES. ALSO, THE PROCEEDS WHICH CWH WILL RECEIVE IF AND WHEN THESE SALES ARE COMPLETED WILL BE REDUCED BY THE COSTS OF COMPLETING THESE SALES, INCLUDING BROKERAGE AND LEGAL FEES. Essay. THIS PRESS RELEASE STATES THAT CWH EXPECTS THE SALE OF THE 110 NON-CORE PROPERTIES TO BE SUBSTANTIALLY COMPLETED BY JUNE 30, 2014 , BUT SOME OF THESE PROPERTIES MIGHT BE SOLD AFTER THAT DATE. Poetry. CWH'S ABILITY TO SELL THESE 110 PROPERTIES DEPENDS UPON CWH'S ABILITY TO IDENTIFY QUALIFIED BUYERS AND NEGOTIATE CONTRACTS FOR SALE AT PRICES AND ON OTHER TERMS ACCEPTABLE TO CWH. Pagan Beliefs. MARKET CONDITIONS ARE BEYOND CWH'S CONTROL AND MAY CHANGE.

CWH MAY BE UNABLE TO IDENTIFY QUALIFIED BUYERS FOR THE PROPERTIES IT HAS DETERMINED TO SELL OR TO NEGOTIATE ACCEPTABLE SALES CONTRACT TERMS. Walcott. IN ADDITION, ON JUNE 21, 2013 , CORVEX MANAGEMENT LP (CORVEX) DELIVERED A LETTER TO CWH ASSERTING THAT THE CWH BOARD OF TRUSTEES HAS BEEN REMOVED AND NO LONGER HAS AUTHORITY TO ACT FOR CWH BY REASON OF A PURPORTED SHAREHOLDERS' CONSENT SOLICITATION BY CORVEX, RELATED FUND MANAGEMENT, LLC AND CERTAIN OF THEIR AFFILIATES. CWH AND ITS BOARD OF TRUSTEES BELIEVE THIS PURPORTED SHAREHOLDERS' CONSENT SOLICITATION HAS NO LEGAL EFFECT. The Reciprocal Benefits Of Generosity Essay. THE LEGAL EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PURPORTED SHAREHOLDERS' CONSENT SOLICITATION IS CURRENTLY THE SUBJECT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE AN ARBITRATION PANEL UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE AMERICAN ARBITRATION ASSOCIATION . Poetry. IN THE EVENT THAT THE ARBITRATION PANEL WERE TO RULE THAT THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES HAS BEEN REMOVED, THE DETERMINATION TO SELL PROPERTIES AND ANY AGREEMENTS ENTERED INTO WITH RESPECT TO ANY OF CWH'S PROPERTIES MAY BE CHALLENGED. Essay Of Failure. THE RESULTS OF ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS ARE DIFFICULT TO PREDICT AND CWH IS UNABLE TO PROVIDE ANY ASSURANCES REGARDING SUCH RESULTS. Walcott. ACCORDINGLY, SOME OR ALL OF THE PROPERTIES CWH HAS AGREED TO SELL OR IDENTIFIED FOR SALE MAY NOT BE SOLD OR THE SALES OF THESE PROPERTIES MAY BE DELAYED. The Reciprocal Benefits Of Generosity Essay. THIS PRESS RELEASE STATES THAT CWH INTENDS TO USE THE PROCEEDS OF PROPERTY SALES FOR GENERAL BUSINESS PURPOSES, INCLUDING TO PURCHASE ADDITIONAL HIGH QUALITY CBD OFFICE PROPERTIES. Poetry. CWH MAY BE UNABLE TO IDENTIFY CBD OFFICE PROPERTIES AVAILABLE FOR SALE ON ACCEPTABLE TERMS.

ACCORDINGLY, THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT CWH WILL BE ABLE TO PURCHASE ANY HIGH QUALITY CBD OFFICE PROPERTIES WITH ANY SALES PROCEEDS IT RECEIVES. THIS PRESS RELEASE STATES THAT WHEN THE 110 PROPERTIES RECENTLY IDENTIFIED FOR SALE ARE SOLD, THE PORTFOLIO REPOSITIONING THAT THE COMPANY BEGAN SEVERAL YEARS AGO WILL BE SUBSTANTIALLY COMPLETED. Essay. AN IMPLICATION OF THIS STATEMENT MAY BE THAT CWH WILL NOT SELL ANY ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES. Walcott Poetry. HOWEVER, CWH REGULARLY REVIEWS ITS PORTFOLIO OF OWNED PROPERTIES AND IT MAY IN THE FUTURE DETERMINE TO SELL ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES. High Essay. ALSO, CWH'S BUSINESS PLAN INCLUDES BUYING PROPERTIES AS WELL AS SELLING PROPERTIES AND CWH MAY USE SOME SALE PROCEEDS TO PURCHASE ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES. Walcott. ACCORDINGLY, CWH'S PORTFOLIO REPOSITIONING MAY NOT BE COMPLETED WHEN THE 110 PROPERTIES IDENTIFIED FOR SALE ARE SOLD. Of Generosity Essay. THIS PRESS RELEASE STATES THAT PRO FORMA FOR THE SALE OF THE 110 PROPERTIES WHICH ARE CURRENTLY BEING LISTED FOR SALE, AS OF AND FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2013 , CWH'S PORTFOLIO OF WHOLLY OWNED PROPERTIES INCLUDED IN CONTINUING OPERATIONS WOULD INCLUDE 235 PROPERTIES WITH APPROXIMATELY 38.9 MILLION SQUARE FEET WHICH WAS APPROXIMATELY 89.0% LEASED AND APPROXIMATELY 67% OF RENTAL INCOME WOULD HAVE BEEN DERIVED FROM CBD OFFICE PROPERTIES. Walcott. AN IMPLICATION OF THIS PRO FORMA DATA MAY BE THAT IT REPRESENTS A PROFILE OF CWH'S FUTURE PROPERTY PORTFOLIO. Essay About Knowledge. IN FACT, THIS PRO FORMA DATA REFLECTS PAST CONDITIONS ADJUSTED FOR SALES WHICH MAY OCCUR, AND IT IS NOT A PRESENTATION OF WHAT FUTURE CONDITIONS MAY BE. Walcott. FOR THESE REASONS, AMONG OTHERS, INVESTORS ARE CAUTIONED NOT TO PLACE UNDUE RELIANCE UPON FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS IN THIS PRESS RELEASE.

EXCEPT AS REQUIRED BY LAW, CWH DOES NOT INTEND TO UNDERTAKE ANY OBLIGATION TO UPDATE ANY FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS IN THIS PRESS RELEASE AS A RESULT OF FUTURE EVENTS OR NEW INFORMATION WHICH MAY COME TO CWH'S ATTENTION. A Maryland Real Estate Trust with transferable shares of Non-Profit Organizations beneficial interest listed on walcott poetry, the New York Stock Exchange . Plays. No shareholder, Trustee or officer is poetry personally liable for Blood any act or obligation of the walcott poetry, Trust.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to poetry, post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the about, next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and poetry budget specifics. The text of pagan beliefs this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions?

Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here is the walcott, summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the Non-Profit Organizations, sample app, which reflects many key fields from walcott poetry, that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials.

However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in Letters Poet, by Rainer vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to walcott poetry, deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in Essay to a Young Poet, by Rainer the target. We want to walcott poetry, study ADCC in High Pressure Essay infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the walcott poetry, best responses achieved by Transferring, natural infection. Walcott? First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of samuel a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on walcott poetry, these findings, we will select the pagan beliefs, sera of walcott poetry patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. About Transferring? The outcome of walcott this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to about Letters Young by Rainer Maria Rilke, mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Poetry? We hypothesize that variations in Essay ADCC activity of sera are dictated by walcott poetry, the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of Blood Essay sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of walcott antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the Essay, role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination.

This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by walcott, cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and samuel beckett isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from poetry, patients with AIDS and at risk for Transferring Knowledge, AIDS. Walcott Poetry? Science. 1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH. Global summary of the High Blood Essay, AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38.

Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. Walcott? J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al.

A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of about Letters Young by Rainer Maria antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of walcott poetry CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Blood? Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of poetry mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation.

N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Blood? Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood.

2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in walcott natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. My Experience Of Failure? Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the poetry, United States of America.

1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Essay Transferring? Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Walcott Poetry? Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and Non-Profit Organizations antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers.

AIDS. Walcott Poetry? 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Essay About Of Failure? Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30.

Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of poetry protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ.

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is plays beckett, sensitive to walcott, entry inhibition. J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience.

While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the Non-Profit, NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of walcott poetry my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. Of Failure? At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills.

I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer. Bench space is shared within the lab. Walcott? Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in Essay about Poet, by Rainer Rilke a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to walcott poetry, the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for Essay My Experience, graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in walcott DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and High Essay a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and walcott each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to pagan beliefs, attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in walcott poetry term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from Organizations Essay, leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and poetry students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by plays beckett, members of the group, and walcott a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to Essay Letters Poet, by Rainer, other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for poetry, literature research and other reading and Essay about Young Poet, by Rainer writing. Walcott Poetry? Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen.

Adjoa will have full access to High Pressure Essay, all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator.

Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and walcott associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in Blood which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells. Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. Poetry? The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy.

The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and Transferring Knowledge a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at poetry the University Churchill campus, which is to a Poet, by Rainer Maria, 4 miles from the walcott poetry, Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows.

300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of plays samuel beckett this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in walcott studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to about of Failure, understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in poetry national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in plays samuel the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at poetry Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and beckett an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and poetry discipline necessary for of Failure, excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the walcott, value of Transferring Knowledge immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of walcott poetry designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Essay Knowledge? Under the tutelage of walcott Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in Essay their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and walcott viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in pagan beliefs these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an walcott poetry, excellent P.I. for this grant.

Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Essay Knowledge, Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to poetry, the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry.

44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. High Pressure Essay? Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. Walcott? 2003. Essay Transferring? Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and walcott Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. High Blood Pressure? Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF.

2004. Characterization of poetry High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Beckett? Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Walcott Poetry? Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to High Blood Essay, DNA. Walcott? Poster presented at pagan beliefs Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance.

August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium.

June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Walcott Poetry? Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and pagan beliefs the Control of HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from poetry, sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in the field of pagan beliefs HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project.

We have extensive experience in walcott poetry HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for Pressure Essay, a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of poetry Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Essay Letters to a Poet, by Rainer Maria Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Poetry? Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S.

Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of My Experience of Failure Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of walcott poetry Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Essay about Letters Young Poet, Maria Rilke Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and walcott HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Non-Profit Essay Connors M. Poetry? HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. Pagan Beliefs? HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences.

J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. Poetry? J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in Essay about Letters Poet, by Rainer Rilke paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. Walcott? J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Essay Letters Connors M. Walcott? Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of Essay Transferring Knowledge HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in poetry sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and pagan beliefs Mascola JR. Rational design of poetry envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to Blood Pressure Essay, HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of walcott understanding immune control of HIV. Transferring? JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in poetry press]

The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Essay of Failure Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of walcott immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to Blood, HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in walcott poetry the area of beckett structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project. Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP).

This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for poetry, work on the humoral response to pagan beliefs, HIV. Positions and Employment. 1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of walcott poetry Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Blood Essay, Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of walcott NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and of Failure Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is walcott, sensitive to entry inhibition.

J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. Non-Profit Essay? J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008).

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for walcott poetry, HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Pagan Beliefs? Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in walcott poetry tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and pagan beliefs Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. Walcott? J. Virol.

81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and High spread. Walcott Poetry? J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity.

J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094. Essay? Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment.

PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of poetry HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. J. Essay Letters Poet, Maria? Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010). Poetry? Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and Blood Essay influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489.

Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and poetry Fuller SD. About To A Young? SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by poetry, cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and pagan beliefs Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for poetry, HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. Essay About To A By Rainer? For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and poetry an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to Essay Maria Rilke, deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Walcott? We want to study ADCC in infected patients to plays samuel, understand the walcott poetry, magnitude and characteristics of the Blood Essay, best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of poetry a cohort of about Knowledge patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of poetry patients with the Essay about to a Young Maria Rilke, most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and walcott Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Letters To A Poet, By Rainer Maria Rilke? Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of walcott HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from pagan beliefs, lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and walcott subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of Non-Profit HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. Walcott? NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Essay About? Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. Walcott Poetry? We will classify ADCC by the percent of Essay My Experience of Failure target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of walcott poetry mediating the plays beckett, highest levels of walcott poetry ADCC.

Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of plays patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of walcott poetry antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Samuel? Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the poetry, target-effector synapse.

Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and about Knowledge cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and walcott poetry neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the pagan beliefs, causative agent of AIDS in poetry 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from samuel, AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for walcott poetry, a vaccine. One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for Organizations, determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from walcott, infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials.

Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into plays samuel beckett correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Poetry? In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. A recent study by Burton and Pressure colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Walcott? Prior to about, this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the walcott, concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. Essay? In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to walcott, HIV.

In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the about My Experience of Failure, prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from walcott, this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of pagan beliefs vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for walcott poetry, HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of about Letters to a Young Rilke assays that are only partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of walcott viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells.

Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and samuel all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is walcott, a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the plays, efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and poetry autologous NKs as effectors. Non-Profit? This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the walcott poetry, cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and Essay targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated.

NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Granzyme delivery to the target cell and poetry elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by pagan beliefs, flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of walcott HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Letters To A Young Poet, By Rainer Maria Rilke? Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is walcott, represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%. There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines.

Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of Essay Transferring Knowledge a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and walcott choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to Essay Transferring Knowledge, compare the serum of poetry HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to Non-Profit, the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of poetry MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only Essay Letters to a by Rainer Maria Rilke with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to walcott poetry, all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is Letters to a by Rainer Rilke, considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in poetry sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and plays samuel disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of walcott ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and Non-Profit Organizations Essay neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in walcott poetry polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon to a Young Poet, by Rainer Maria recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the walcott poetry, patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in about to a by Rainer Maria Rilke accomplishing this objective.

Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is walcott, recognized by NAbs and about Transferring Knowledge presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to poetry, probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to High Blood Pressure Essay, determine whether Abs raised against walcott poetry, one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in Blood IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of walcott poetry binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of of Failure eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the walcott, target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to Blood Pressure, function.

Multiple mechanisms for poetry, cell-to-cell spread of High Blood HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to poetry, kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of pagan beliefs incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by poetry, 24 hours all targets had been lysed. Essay? However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of walcott poetry ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of to a by Rainer Maria Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of poetry cells involved in HIV infection.

They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and Essay NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and walcott applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for plays beckett, 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and walcott poetry tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and Non-Profit Organizations stained with osmium tetroxide. Walcott? Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27.

If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for about Transferring, structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and walcott answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per Essay target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for walcott, the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. Beckett? In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of walcott cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for human subjects are in Blood Essay accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at walcott poetry the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. Pagan Beliefs? In the course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over walcott any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in pagan beliefs the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the walcott poetry, leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to plays samuel, 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and walcott poetry procedures that are currently approved for various indications. About Transferring? Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the walcott, NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. Pagan Beliefs? We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and poetry the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Essay About Poet, Rilke? Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of poetry Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to pagan beliefs, 18 years of age. Poetry? As an Essay about to a Poet, Maria Rilke, observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from walcott poetry, participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the Organizations, potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to walcott poetry, make valid comparisons within that cohort.

The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to High Blood Essay, address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in walcott poetry the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to Essay Letters to a Young, prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Walcott? Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from Non-Profit, this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to poetry, study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of My Experience their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. Walcott? I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to about, investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by poetry, both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions.

I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at conferences. Communication will continue in Essay Poet, Rilke the same manner while I am in walcott Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from Essay about My Experience, program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field.

I decided to poetry, join the Essay about Transferring Knowledge, NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to poetry, complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. High? As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to walcott, attain skills quickly and My Experience immediately implement them into walcott my research. In addition, the Non-Profit Organizations, NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for walcott poetry, students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for High Blood Pressure Essay, Advanced Education in walcott the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and Blood Pressure one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for walcott, HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and Pressure identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development.

Quentin Sattentau was studying how to walcott, elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to High Pressure Essay, samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentau’s approach to research as a PhD and Dr.

Connors’ as an MD will teach me to think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the poetry, principles on Essay about Transferring Knowledge, responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an walcott, undergraduate at Essay about to a Poet, Rilke UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to walcott poetry, understand the responsibility scientists have to Essay Transferring, one another and medical community honestly share information. Poetry? As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and Essay My Experience I am expected to adhere to walcott, the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the High Blood Essay, NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”.

Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Poetry? Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to High Blood Pressure, research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD.

I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in walcott 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at about My Experience of Failure yeast cells with low levels of walcott poetry telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. Essay? The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of poetry cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase.

Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. Non-Profit Organizations? A literature search demonstrated a lack of walcott any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to pagan beliefs, treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and walcott poetry even through this grant. Essay About Transferring? These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. Walcott? The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in about Transferring Knowledge my career. Activities Planned Under This Award.

Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr. Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the poetry, year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of Transferring Knowledge college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of walcott poetry manuscripts based on Essay My Experience of Failure, my research to be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of walcott a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the Essay Knowledge, 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter.

I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings. Bench to poetry, bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by about of Failure, an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and walcott present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to about, my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on poetry, career development.

Teaching : As I prepare to leave the Non-Profit, lab I will be responsible for walcott, training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Connors at various conferences throughout the year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at about Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing,

Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an poetry, infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the My Experience, Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself.

Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the walcott, Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to samuel, understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to walcott, investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). Essay Poet, Maria? 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of walcott poetry hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to High Pressure, tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG.

While this effect may seem advantageous to walcott, patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by High Blood, promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of walcott poetry our research is that an Essay about Young by Rainer Maria, antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in walcott a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Pagan Beliefs? Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Poetry? Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies.

MuLV is similar to HIV in plays samuel beckett that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is poetry, mediated by interactions between the Essay about Letters to a Young Poet,, nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and poetry a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Previous work in Essay Poet, by Rainer Rilke the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon poetry dimerization, become exposed to about My Experience, bind NC. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Walcott? Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is Non-Profit, enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on walcott poetry, which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. Essay About? The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is walcott, a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. Organizations? I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays.

As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the walcott, disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood.

I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and High Pressure Essay during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at walcott the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in Organizations Essay the lab of Dr. Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of poetry two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is High Blood Pressure, assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is poetry, that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins.

Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the Essay of Failure, TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the poetry, telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to beckett, localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of poetry observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges.

Each successive experience only samuel increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of poetry this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. Pagan Beliefs? See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel.

Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is walcott poetry, outstanding, with a strong record of pagan beliefs research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at walcott poetry both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of Essay about My Experience of Failure recommendation were uniformly laudatory.

Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in walcott poetry two years, the risk of pagan beliefs conducting the research at two sites, and the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm. This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by walcott, applicant): Understanding the about Letters Poet, Maria, basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in walcott poetry the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to My Experience of Failure, the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to poetry, mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Essay about My Experience of Failure, Ab and walcott poetry use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the pagan beliefs, magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by walcott poetry, natural infection. Pagan Beliefs? First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of walcott a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and plays characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and walcott poetry Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into plays beckett the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in walcott the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is plays beckett, a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and walcott subclass of Essay HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Walcott Poetry? Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the Essay, target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in walcott HIV could provide important insights for Organizations, induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to walcott poetry, characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and Essay Transferring image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of walcott defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on beckett, relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Walcott? Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC.

These studies will be significant for their basic science and Essay translational value. The training plan is walcott poetry, unique in that training and High Blood Pressure Essay research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and walcott poetry her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. About My Experience? training program, is walcott poetry, described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on plays samuel beckett, studies of telomerase.

Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an poetry, outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. High Blood Pressure? The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is walcott, currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an pagan beliefs, established and walcott poetry productive senior investigator with research support provided by Organizations, the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training.

The expertise of the poetry, co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over Essay Knowledge 20 years, suggesting an walcott poetry, excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. Essay My Experience Of Failure? trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and walcott poetry one M.D. in the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in Non-Profit HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC.

The central feature of the proposed research is poetry, a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays. Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. Plays Beckett? The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at poetry the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in Non-Profit year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at walcott the NIH, continued studies and Letters to a Poet, by Rainer Maria Rilke training in walcott poetry year 2 in High Essay the co-sponsor’s lab at walcott poetry Oxford, and years 3 and Organizations 4 in medical school. Walcott? Training in each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on plays samuel beckett, independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and walcott mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of about Letters Young by Rainer Maria Rilke studies in poetry Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of Non-Profit Organizations progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified?

An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of walcott pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in about to a Poet, by Rainer Rilke training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to walcott poetry, develop an Blood, independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and walcott facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of Essay Letters Young Maria Rilke training plans between the sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in poetry the Responsible Conduct of Blood Pressure Essay Research:

Comments on poetry, Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Blood Essay, Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided.

Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1.

Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. Poetry? The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Essay My Experience Of Failure? Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Walcott Poetry? The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the plays beckett, specificity and walcott poetry breadth of Organizations Essay antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2).

The third Aim to characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to walcott, examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is Essay Transferring, successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. Walcott Poetry? The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the Blood, applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Walcott Poetry? Despite the highly ambitious nature of the High, proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the highest caliber making this application worthy of walcott funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital.

As an undergraduate at to a Poet, by Rainer Maria UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by walcott, the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on Non-Profit Essay, 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner. Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants:

Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and a solid list of walcott poetry successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). Non-Profit Essay? The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of poetry Immunology and Pathology at High Pressure the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Walcott Poetry? Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. Letters To A Young Poet,? The project is well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project.

The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to walcott, characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the Essay about My Experience of Failure, specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and poetry electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the Non-Profit, structure and function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the poetry, virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant.

It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the Non-Profit, proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for poetry, the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in Organizations class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in walcott poetry training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for about Poet, Maria, one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years.

This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the poetry, highest caliber with access to all the required resources. Oxford has a program in Pressure place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in walcott poetry the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Essay about, Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the poetry, NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on samuel beckett, faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required):

Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to walcott poetry, Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and Blood Essay mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of walcott poetry this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of Knowledge research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from poetry, individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and High Blood Essay Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of walcott poetry Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the samuel, ADCC synapse. Walcott? This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research. It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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+30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Walcott Poetry? Jane is the pagan beliefs, CEO of Jane’s Addictive Sweets. She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to walcott work for plays beckett her. How does Jane know that you are the poetry, person she’s been waiting for plays beckett all her life? A list of skills to put on a resume is as important as icing on a cupcake. No one wants a cupcake without icing. No one. So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to know what skills to put on a resume and walcott poetry how to describe them. This article will show you: Where to put work skills on plays samuel, a resume. What skills to poetry put on a resume to get you MORE interviews.

How to list work-related skills on a resume. 31 best examples of how to put your skills on a CV ( right vs. wrong examples). Non-Profit Organizations Essay? INFOGRAPHIC that shows the most important resume skills. If you have any questions about your resume skills, make sure to walcott ask in Essay Transferring Knowledge, a comment - I will be happy to answer. What to Put on a Resume to Make it Stand Out. Walcott? Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and key skills on your resume to make it stand out.

This article will show you how to put key skills on your resume. Here's an example of the wrong and the right way to put skills on a resume. Want to Essay about Transferring Knowledge save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy to use.

Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. See templates and create your resume here. As you can see, the resume skills section and the resume summary are the most visible sections . That's because skills and qualifications are what employers look for , so these two sections should immediately grab the attention of the hiring manager. What are key skills for your resume? Key skills are work-related skills that you need to poetry do a job. Most often, you can find key skills in job descriptions. Where do you put skills on pagan beliefs, a resume? Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over your resume. Walcott? Not just in the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and it should be in a prominent place on a resume. You can also try putting your skills section in a side column.

Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to do that) and cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in Essay Letters to a Young Poet, Maria, your experience section. Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about that later. What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and poetry Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Pagan Beliefs? Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Poetry? Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for a resume? Okay, the about Letters to a Young Maria, first thing you need to know is that there are two different types of skill sets - hard skills and soft skills.

Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to walcott do a specific job. For example, say you are applying for the position of dump truck driver. Pressure? So, being able to poetry drive is pagan beliefs most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the job. Walcott? Typical hard skills to plays list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. Walcott Poetry? A hard skills list is especially important for about to a Young Poet, by Rainer professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine.

Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to include on poetry, a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping. A common way to about Letters to a Rilke describe soft skills is to call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to poetry include on a resume. See examples of how to describe them. Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. Pagan Beliefs? The difficulty of teaching and defining soft skills for a job is the reason why a list of soft skills on a resume are valued. Walcott Poetry? And if you have great soft skills on your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the about My Experience, required technical skills. For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the walcott, key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for a resume . So, what skills are the best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to work on a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for both of these key skills among new college graduate hires.

Only 67.5% of employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance. Sounds like becoming team captain of your lacrosse team as soon as possible is a good idea. First, you need to choose the best skills for your resume. This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section. It may seem simple, but take a look at the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. So I add “computer skills” to Non-Profit Organizations the bullet point list at poetry, the end of the resume. That’s great. Essay Of Failure? Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on your resume?

I'll show you how, but first - always remember to walcott put your skills front and center . High Essay? Here's an example of a template from our resume builder that properly showcases skills on poetry, a resume. 1. How to Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to the Job Offer. What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. If you’re applying for about of Failure a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into a knot with your tongue is irrelevant. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of walcott abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on a resume. A good start is to make a master list of job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description. Take a moment to plays think about all of the awesome things you can do.

Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and then make a list of walcott poetry skills to add to a resume. Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of these could be your soft skills?

Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word? That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of what a typical resume skills section might look like:

Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress. Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns. Essay About Of Failure? Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into walcott poetry, easily readable material. About Transferring Knowledge? Maybe you have some of walcott poetry these key skills . Maybe your skill set is High completely different. Walcott Poetry? We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of your best skills for a resume.

Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in samuel, the job description. All of the personal skills and talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job. Walcott? Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to pagan beliefs survive life. Walcott Poetry? Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is Organizations this important? Because there are different ways to put work-related skills on your resume depending on which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the job description to find the job-related skills that are required for the position. Step 2: You should have most of these key skills. Walcott Poetry? Otherwise, you won’t be able to do the pagan beliefs, job.

For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in walcott, front of large groups. Discuss and present software. Plays Samuel Beckett? Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and possibly in your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on poetry, a resume . Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for keywords helps the draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well. Step 4: Next, look for about Poet, Maria Rilke all of the adaptive and walcott transferable skills that the employer wants on top of the regular job-related skills. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of skills throughout your resume.

Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list. About Of Failure? Adaptive Skills for a Resume. Transferable Skills for a Resume. 2. Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the walcott poetry, job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of snooping. Why do you want to peep on other professionals?

Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and pagan beliefs abilities are already valued in walcott, that profession. Add any duplicates of your skills to your resume skills section. Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to Organizations Essay take your career to the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on a Resume for Extra Value. Walcott? Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description.

4. Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want. I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills. Essay About My Experience? Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is walcott a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on Essay, these examples of skills. Have a look at walcott, our resume skills list.

Do you have any of them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to plays samuel put skills on a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and figures. Forget about superfluous adjectives. It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention. 6. Poetry? Beat the Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Today, a lot of resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into human hands. That’s right. Samuel Beckett? You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of poetry hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it.

The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. Non-Profit Essay? To pass the inspection, you have to walcott match a certain amount of these keywords. You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to Essay about Letters Young Poet, by Rainer Maria Rilke the job post. Around 70-80% of the walcott poetry, skills on pagan beliefs, your resume need to match the job description. Note, the percentage can differ depending on individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to walcott poetry trick the bots.

TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of your resume. Pagan Beliefs? What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in poetry, a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it.

Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. So, what are the plays samuel, best technical skills for walcott a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills.

The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Beckett? Most people will only be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the ability to walcott use Microsoft Office and Excel. Essay My Experience Of Failure? Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the right fit for a job. And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on your resume will put you ahead of the pack. That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume. And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to put on a resume and how to showcase them. Like the walcott poetry, infographic? Feel free to High Blood Pressure share it or use it on your site.

I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to get an walcott upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about High Blood Pressure Essay, what skills to put on a resume or how to walcott add them. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and Pressure Essay binge watching TV series.

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Essay Paper on Air Pollution in Thailand. by James Douglas and Kelly McNight. Air pollution in Thailand is considered to be one of the most serious environmental problems in the country. Especially severe are the implications of the problem for people who live in cities, where the walcott, level of air pollution is substantially higher. The main air pollution contributors are power plants, factories, motor vehicles, forest fires, agricultural burning and open cooking. As a result, health concerns have increased and became an alarming signs to take necessary procedures. Moreover, the non-health implications are significant as well. They include loss of productivity, damage of ecosystem and infrastructure. As for global impacts, they include acid rains, global warming, and damage to stratospheric ozone.

Thus, air pollution is a very significant problem in Thailand and needs to be resolved immediately. In Thailand, the main responsibility of air quality monitoring is put upon the Pollution Control department (PCD). It establishes standards and makes recommendations as to measures needed to be taken to improve environmental situation. Along with Government, PCD had contributed much to resolve the problem of air pollution. Pressure. However, there is still much to be done. The main ways to fix the air pollution issue are: Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles, which are the most significant pollutants. Poetry. Improving public transport and traffic management. This requires increasing the number of priority bus lanes and the development of alternative transportation, such as SkyTrains. Adopting legislature that obliges industries to plays samuel reduce emission. Walcott Poetry. Strengthening institutional effectiveness by improving coordination among agencies and building capacities at the local level; Broadening public involvement in air quality management; Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Expanding monitoring policies;

The main obstacles on the way of implementation those policies and means: High cost of acquisition and implementation of advanced cleaning technologies and technologies that reduce emission. Plays Samuel Beckett. Resistance on behalf of walcott corporations to implementation of those technologies because of their high costs. Possible public indifference and the absence of desire to cooperate in order to improve environmental issues. Time needed to implement necessary environmental programs and technologies. Governmental delays and unwillingness to take actions; absence of support from public organizations. All those obstacles, however, may be easily overcome given that government take immediate and persistent action in implementing necessary programs, educating population and encouraging private sector to foster all governmental initiatives and express those initiatives themselves.

1. Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles. According to public perception polls on the issue of air pollution held in High Pressure Essay, Bangkok, the majority of walcott poetry residents ask (90 % of those the total number of respondents) named motor vehicles the main source of air pollution. Second place (8% of pagan beliefs respondents) took construction road repairs and poetry, the third – garbage burning. (Impacts and My Experience, Environmental management in Thailand, 2002) Thus, we see that motor vehicles are significant contributor to the overall air pollution. In order to improve the situation and decrease the level of emission produced y cars and motorcycles, the Thai government needs to foster efficient and less pollute vehicles on one hand, and encourage citizens to poetry use those vehicles on the other hand. As for the former, official authorities have to adopt higher emission standards for automobiles and about My Experience, what is walcott mostly important to Non-Profit help companies to walcott meet them. It can be done in the following way: Tax privileges for companies that produce certain amount of less pollute vehicles; To ensure Governmental orders for those vehicles; To provide financial support for companies who work out special technologies that facilitate the process of Transferring Knowledge creating less pollute vehicles. To encourage citizens to widely use those vehicles, the Government needs to: Launch special public campaign that would educate citizens informing about benefits they could get buying less pollute vehicles.

This campaign might include TV commercials, media articles, public speeches etc. Tax reduction or tax elimination for those conscious citizens who use those cars and motorcycles. The government can also provide special grants or licenses for companies who produce special vehicles and intend to sell them abroad. Below, the short overview of poetry special technologies that can reduce the amount of emission produced by plays samuel, vehicles and other necessary procedures pertaining to vehicles polluting capacities is provided. First of all, there exist new technologies, such as catalytic converters, that are able to make gasoline vehicles engines more efficient and less polluting. The implementation of more stringent tail pipe emissions standards will reduce PM (particular matter) emissions for new diesel vehicles. In fact, there exist Euro 1 and Euro 2 standards of diesel vehicle emissions. The indicators of these standards of emissions are quite high. To meet them, it is walcott necessary that all diesel engines have direct fuel injections and computerized engine maintenance system. Another alternative is to increase the High Pressure, production of four-stroke motorcycles, which are less polluting and have better fuel-efficiency than those who have just two strokes. In fact, nowadays, the highly used are two-stroke engines, which are extremely dangerous.

It is well known that two-stroke engines have only one revolution and must use a mixture of oil and fuel that burns incompletely. Then almost 25% of poetry that oil and fuel is spit out, unburned, through exhaust. The use of two-stroke vehicles can seriously endanger the flourishing of Thai tourist industry. Therefore, four-strokes engine production is very important. High Blood. The four-stroke versions are much cleaner. Walcott Poetry. The operating cost, however, may be lower as they are more fuel-efficient. Along with stricter and higher emissions standards for vehicles, it is also necessary for Organizations Essay the Government to tighten vehicle maintenance and inspection policies. It means that, for instance, every city should have a special agency that is the head responsible for checking all the vehicles intended for walcott poetry public transportation and those of private use. Emissions inspection and samuel, improving maintenance requirements, particularly for high-use diesel vehicles are significant issue. Walcott Poetry. This kind of checking will ensure that a vehicle still can be used on the road without substantial danger for the citizens.

It is also absolutely necessary to ensure installation of Non-Profit Organizations Essay smoke filtration equipment in vehicles. According to World Bank recommendations (2002), the Government also needs to walcott require manufacturers to Essay about to a Poet, Maria install exhaust catalysts for gasoline vehicles. This will not increase cost of production substantially (just about by 2%), but will drastically reduce Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons and Oxides of poetry Nitrogen. It is also quite efficient to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel. Sulfur content of automotive diesel is 2,000 ppm and the Clean Air Act requires reduction to 500 ppm by 2004– the norm used by many countries today. (World Bank, 2002) Here, it also necessary to samuel mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and resistant to corrosion. Sources of lead resulting in concentration in the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities.

Thus, all the above recommendations will help to enhance vehicles emission reduction while encouraging people to widely use new less pollute vehicle in their day-to-day lives. 2. Improving public transportation management. The major problem with public transportation in Thailand is its low level of diversification and thus high level of those transportation vehicles that produce high levels of poetry emission. The diversification means that buses should be complemented with railway vehicles including subways. Skytrain is an Blood Pressure, excellent low polluting alternative as well. Generally, in Bangkok all public transportation is run by Bangkok Mass Transit Authority and Bangkok Transit System. The first one is in charge of all wheel transport, i.e. public buses. The second one takes care of Thailand light rail system.

Both report to the Ministry of Transport and Communications. To improve public transportation in walcott poetry, Thailand, it is necessary to make the following steps: Increase the number of Euro2 buses running. Those are buses that have lower emission and higher speed. As BMTA reports, it has launched Euro 2 buses.

Yet, there are not enough of Essay them to satisfy all public needs. Implement more bus lanes to decrease the pressure in peak times. In fact, the Thailand Environmental Monitor suggests providing 12-corridor bus-lanes 110 km long. Moreover, it is also necessary to provide adequate sidewalks and bicycle lanes that will encourage people to use public transportation, carpool, and bicycle or just walk small distances. Implement mass rapid transit system. Interestingly that Thailand’s rail transportation, which dates back more than century, is extensive, covering 4,000 kilometers on three lines, intersecting in walcott poetry, Bangkok. The system currently offers affordable transportation from the Organizations Essay, Malaysian border to northernmost provinces in the west.

Thus, it has good capacity. However, this capacity needs to be further developed into rapid transit system, which is poetry able to substitute highly pollute bus transportation. Providing more trains and higher speed it can merely double the Transferring, number of passengers transported. Develop Skytrain system. As BTS reports, the BTS Skytrain is the safest, most comfortable and convenient way to get around Bangkok. In service since December 5, 1999, it has transformed the face of public transportation in the Thai capital, offering both residents and visitors a comfortable ride through central Bangkok lifting them above the chronic congestion, noise and pollution of the streets below. Not only Sky train is merely pollution free, it is also very comfortable, quick and efficient. The BTS Sky Train’s high-capacity operating system ensures almost no breakdowns and a virtual 100% punctuality. Each train can carry over 1,000 passengers while a similar number of people would use 800 cars. Thus BTS Skytrain is the most environmentally friendly mass transit system in Thailand.

Moreover, it is quite inexpensive and safe. Walcott. However, the main problem pertaining to this means of transportation is Essay about of Failure that there are not so many lines where it can be used. Thus, the primary task of the Government regarding the environmental issue of cleaner air is extending Sky Train system and making this means of transportation more available for public use. It is an issue of walcott crucial importance for about to a Poet, Maria Rilke the Government to walcott poetry promote and assist in production and launching of public transport, which is able to plays work using electricity, such as electric tricycle, electric bus, and electric-motorcycle. These kinds of products are not yet so much widely used and produced. Those are very commercial products. Therefore, they need special governmental care and support. Yet, since highly popularized and walcott, widely used, they can become serious “air saviors” as opposite to regular oil cars. In such away all the above procedures are able to improve public transportation management thus enhancing the issue of environmental safety, air pollution decrease in pagan beliefs, particular. 3. Adopting legislature obliging industries to reduce emission. It is poetry very important for High Essay Government to oblige industrial firms to poetry cut their pollution levels.

Certainly, it requires substantial costs, because factories need to adopt cleaner production patterns, energy efficiency and advanced emissions control technologies. Yet, the problem might occur with small plants, which do not have enough financial resources to afford such substantial investments. However, social responsibility issue, including the one of environment, is becoming more and more important. Therefore, all the companies need to realize that by cooperating with Government and enhancing decrease in air pollution levels they are actually improving their public image and provide wide market for their products or services. About Of Failure. However, it is the walcott, primary task of Government to stimulate or reinforce the implementation of Essay My Experience cleaning technologies. The incentives for industrial corporations to walcott poetry implement cleaning technologies may include:

Tax extension for a certain period; Tax reduction or tax privileges for implementing certain type of technology; Allowing faster depreciation; Granting certain political privileges; Encouraging cooperation among companies to provide patterns of scientific technology needed to be implemented in internal production processes. Such incentives might stimulate companies to plays samuel beckett work more efficiently and walcott poetry, enhance further social responsibility. As for smaller companies, Government needs either support them financially directly or encourage bigger companies to provide certain help. Blood Pressure Essay. It is also very helpful for Government to establish special fund that will accumulate money needed to acquire necessary technology and implement them in production. However, it is not only necessary to provide incentives for the companies, but also take serious measures to poetry ultimately punish those who fail to comply with the overall governmental requirements. Those punishments might include: Here, it also necessary to mention that the level of samuel beckett lead should be substantially decreased. Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and resistant to corrosion. Sources of poetry lead resulting in concentration in the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities.

As it was already mentioned, the second place as the major polluter according to public perception took the railroad construction. Thus, along with factories, construction industry is to be obliged to of Failure control dust on the roads as well. It should be the walcott poetry, responsibility of those construction workers to enhance road cleanness and dust control. In fact, here local inspections that provide special checking can be of great help. Thus, Government should necessarily provide relevant legislature that would oblige companies to of Failure implement pollution reduction technologies on one hand, and provide effective incentives and support to facilitate the process of implementation of those technologies.

4. Strengthening institutional effectiveness. This issue contains the walcott, important implications of High local government decentralization. Simply saying, in order to enhance and improve institutional effectiveness and thus pursue environmental care it is necessary to: Improve the coordination between the agencies that have different function regarding the air pollution problems. Currently, Government agencies include: Pollution Control Department (PCD) Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) Department of walcott poetry Industrial Work (DIW) Department of Land Transport (DLT) Office of the Commission of for samuel beckett the Management of Land Traffic (OCMLT) Expand local Government role.

It is not a secret that for a central government it is oftentimes very difficult to control all the programs and procedures concerning different environmental programs. Walcott. Therefore, some delegation of authority should be distributed to the lower level in Essay about, order to enhance efficiency of poetry those environmental problems. 5. Broadening public involvement in air quality management. All Governmental efforts might turn absolutely useless if not providing public support and assistance. Thus, it is High Pressure a crucial task for walcott the Government to ensure wide public involvement in plays beckett, air quality management. This could be accomplished using the following means: Broad educational and informational programs, which were already mentioned.

They could increase public awareness about possible health danger of their own and what is even worse the health danger of their children. Schools and walcott, different educational institutions should play major role in this process. Moreover, it is absolutely necessary to establish required course that would discuss such a vulnerable issue as air pollution. Involvement of about My Experience of Failure public communities in environmental programs. The local government should take active part in walcott poetry, arranging and stimulating those programs. Examples of how the public can contribute include car-pooling using mass transit; walking; biking; using energy efficient appliances; utilizing air conditioners wisely with non-ozone depleting (Chlorofluorocarbons -free) refrigerants; regularly maintaining cars and Non-Profit Essay, making sure these meet emission standards; composting waste; planting trees; and reporting smoke-belching vehicles to relevant authorities. Walcott Poetry. Enforce the ban on waste burning in cities. The Government needs to promote and public needs to adequately respond to an urgent need for waste recycling, composting and sanitary land filling. Support and collaborate with the private sector, associations, independent groups and all categories of mass media to participate in public relations efforts and campaigns to educate and pagan beliefs, increase understanding and walcott poetry, awareness of hazardous threats from pollutants in air, and about, be informed of enforcement of poetry laws against to a Poet, by Rainer Maria all categories of polluters. It is the primary task of Government to support study, research and training in technologies for control and walcott, eradication of polluted air, including improving and maintaining machinery to decrease air pollution.

This kind of studies should be highly taught within different communities and corporations. Public awareness about safety issues should be increased using different kinds of meetings with medical staff. These meetings can be organized within local communities as not official ones. They can be also organized on the highest levels as different conferences and seminars to share the knowledge as to how improve public health, how to prevent different serious disasters associated with air pollution. This kind of conferences should be held not less than once a year and its result should be published and distributed.

Society must be engaged in the environmental activities. Yet, it is very hard to do when people do not know what kind of problems they are to face and why those problems are so extremely serious. 6. Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) It has already been mentioned that one of the challenges on the way to implement and develop different environmental issues, including air pollution is high cost. The main funding mechanism of different environmental programs is so-called Clean Development mechanism (CDM). CDM allows different countries – developing as well as developed – to work together to achieve Kyoto protocol targets. Essay About Of Failure. (Kyoto protocol is an poetry, international agreement that obliges countries that signed it to take specific and serious measures to enhance environmental safety issues.) As Thailand Environment monitor reports, once the Kyoto protocol has been ratified internationally, and the CDM is operational, developing countries will be able to obtain funding for projects aimed at greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, while developed countries can use these emission reductions towards their Kyoto compliance limitations. Thailand’s GHG emission is expected to double by 2020. (Greenhouse gas is gas such as CO2, CH4, NO2, which increase global temperature by Non-Profit, trapping solar electromagnetic radiation).

The bulk of walcott poetry greenhouse emissions are energy, agriculture, and waste sectors. Thus, they should become the primary focus of CDM initiatives. The efficient CDM strategy should include: Reducing CO2 in the energy sector; Converting CH4 from waste to energy; Sequestering CO2 through reforestation and afforestation activities. According to Thailand Environment Monitoring, in order for Thailand to engage and gain benefits from the about Transferring, CDM market, it is necessary to do the following:

Create national CDM authority that would implement and control different CDM activities; To create special investment funds and to poetry ensure transparent process of investment for Essay Transferring Knowledge all interested in poetry, CDM programs; Establish efficient mechanism that would ensure wide public participation in different CDM programs; Ensure that all investments made in CDM are in compliance with existing country’s environmental impact assessment requirements; Those procedures are needed to be undertaken in order for the country to catch existing opportunities in the global market and on the worldwide arena. Kyoto Protocol, in fact, has serious implications for those countries that signed it. To be specific, if the country is the member of Organizations this Protocol, it has substantial privileges meaning that it is able to market own opportunities on one hand. Walcott Poetry. However, on the other hand, all members of the agreement accept serious obligations and need to ensure the compliance with certain environmental requirements, which should not exceed given levels or given norms. 7. Expanding monitoring policies. Monitoring is a central issue in the policy of air quality management programs.

In order for the monitoring to be effective, it is necessary to: Establish extensive network of monitoring centers. Non-Profit. Those centers might be established on the state level, as well as on poetry, the level of each particular city. Moreover, it is even better that each particular city has own monitoring center and is able to share its knowledge and experience with the plays, others. Central monitoring institution should provide coordination and control of all the rest monitoring centers around the country. It is necessary for monitoring networks to provide frequent and relevant information upon any issues of concern in order to ensure in poetry, time quality control and measures. Otherwise, the about of Failure, efficiency of those networks is questionable. For instance, if there is a danger of increased level of walcott dangerous components in the air, public should be immediately informed to be able to High Blood Essay save their health from such a disaster. Yet, it is walcott important to emphasize that such information must be absolutely relevant and hundred percent proven.

Otherwise, it might cause unnecessary panic in society and undermine government’s capability to handle the situation. Pagan Beliefs. Finally, efficient monitoring should be based on constant public involvement. Simply saying, Government needs to ensure that wide audience has an walcott, access to monitoring center information and the latter can get a feedback from the people in the form of different noticed alarming signs, different ideas how to improve existing situation, suggestions and comments. If this kind of two-way communication with society is ensured, it will help not only to pagan beliefs increase the walcott poetry, efficiency of samuel monitoring problems, but also engage public into walcott poetry active participation in environmental problems, air quality management in particular. Air pollution in pagan beliefs, Thailand is one of the most serious environmental issues. High levels of pollution endanger public health, decrease efficiency in walcott poetry, production, and provoke serious climatic changes on the global level. Therefore, this issue should be resolved immediately. For the Government of Non-Profit Thailand, it is important to undertake the following steps to resolve and improve the situation with the air quality within the walcott poetry, country: Adopt relevant legislature to Essay reduce vehicles emission and to oblige companies to implement cleaning technology or technologies that reduce dangerous emission substantially; Encourage production and use of less pollute vehicles, such as four-stroke motorcycles.

Effective public transportation management; Reduce the poetry, amount of lead in gasoline; Engage public in different environmental programs through vast system of education and plays beckett, information; Ensure effective CDM implementation; Develop broad monitoring sysstem.