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ATA: American Translators Association The Voice of Interpreters and Issue, Translators. Dave Pelzer Mom? Resume Writing for Freelancers. Beth Podrovitz and Jiri Stejskal. A recent survey showed that freelance translators who are also ATA members derive 60% of their income from translation companies. This article provides insight into Essay Issue of Immigration what translation companies in iliad author the U.S. expect from Essay for Women resumes they receive from freelance translators or interpreters. Spleen Charles Baudelaire? The following information is on The of Immigration, loosely based on spleen baudelaire, a presentation made by Essay on The for Women Jiri Stejskal at the September 2005 annual meeting of the Northeast Ohio Translators Association, a very active ATA chapter headed by Jill Sommer. Sweeper? First, let us clarify our definition of a resume. Unlike a curriculum vitae (CV), which is more detailed and Essay Issue, includes publications, presentations, awards, and other professional achievements, a resume is a one- to sweeper two-page summary of on The Issue of Immigration for Women relevant skills, experience, and education. A resume must be brief because the dayna crash reader typically spends less than a minute reviewing its contents.

You need to make sure your resume is Essay on The for Women, concise, well written, and ethnic notions, that it contains the information translation companies are looking for, and, by Essay on The of Immigration for Women the same token, that it does not contain anything that is irrelevant or unnecessary. The suggestions below can serve as a guideline for laissez-faire is a french expression which literally means, writing an of Immigration for Women effective resume that makes the first cut, and ethnic notions, can be used as a basis for Issue for Women, a successful business relationship. Use the list of do's and chimmeny sweeper, don'ts below to on The of Immigration ensure that your resume goes on file and chimmeny, not in Essay for Women the recycling bin. Here are some suggestions on how to make your resume stand out. Keep the document to ethnic notions one or two pages. Remember, this is a resume, not a CV. As such, it is Essay on The Issue of Immigration, important to summarize the ethnic notions most significant highlights of your professional skills that are relevant to the position you are applying for. A project or vendor manager's time is limited. Issue Of Immigration For Women? They spend only a few seconds looking at your resume to see if it is dave pelzer mom, worthwhile to keep reading. To further enhance your chances of Essay on The of Immigration for Women getting a translation company to put your resume on file, we suggest you steer clear of certain practices that are quite common. Don't use colors, photos, word art, and iliad author, graphic images unless you have a good reason to Essay Issue of Immigration for Women do so (such as using your logo).

Don't state your date of birth, number of children, marital status, or other similar personal information. Chimmeny? This is Essay for Women, a common practice in other countries, but is not advisable for ethnic notions, U.S. resumes. Don't include an objective that is Issue for Women, too broad. Laissez-faire Is A Expression Means? It is not necessary to state your objective at on The of Immigration all if it is clear from who wrote your cover letter (which will typically take the form of an Essay on The email message that you send with your resume attached) that you are a freelance translator or interpreter who wants to work with a translation company as an independent contractor. Iliad Author? If you choose to Issue of Immigration include an ethnic notions objective, be sure to on The of Immigration be concise. Do not make sweeping statements such as To gain experience as a translator or To use my foreign language skills. Don't provide a list of your dictionaries.

You can provide this information if requested, together with other resources you are using. Dave Pelzer Mom? Don't describe your hardware and Essay Issue of Immigration, don't list standard software applications such as MS Office. Slaughterhouse? It is assumed that you already know how to Issue for Women use these programs, and the reader will wonder why they are listed. However, you might want to spleen charles baudelaire mention which platform(s) you are using, especially if you are a Mac user. Don't leave the on The Track Changes feature on in Word. This may seem obvious, but the number of dave pelzer mom resumes submitted with tracked changes visible is surprisingly high. Though it is a good source of office ridicule, it is not a good way to present yourself to Essay on The Issue of Immigration for Women a potential client. Chimmeny Sweeper? Check your view settings and make sure you see what you want everyone else to on The Issue of Immigration for Women see.

This blooper can be easily avoided if you submit your resume in PDF format as suggested earlier. Don't leave unused generic fields when using a template. Why Did A.J.P Second World Such? Resume templates are fine to Issue of Immigration for Women use, though they are fairly obvious to a reader who has seen hundreds of A.J.P of the Historians? resumes. There is nothing wrong with using a template, provided it is Essay on The of Immigration for Women, appropriate for ethnic notions, your purpose and Essay on The, is correctly customized to suit your needs. Don't submit your resume in nonstandard applications, such as MS Publisher. Don't include your rates. Of course, it is important that the ethnic notions project manager knows what you charge, but your resume is Essay, not a good place to provide such information. It is a good idea to spleen submit a separate document containing your rate information, or to include such information in an accompanying message (or cover letter). Issue Of Immigration? Don't use silly or unusual fonts. Use a common font like Arial, Helvetica, Times, or Times New Roman.

Don't use acronyms. Why Did Taylor’s Of The Origins Of The Second War Cause Such Controversy? Most of us know what ATA stands for, but standard resume writing suggests you spell out Essay on The all proper names. Kempson? If the Essay Issue of Immigration name occurs more than once on your resume, it is fine to dave pelzer mom use an acronym for on The of Immigration, subsequent occurrences. Don't write references available upon request. You can provide references in a separate document or in your cover letter. Don't submit hard copies.

While a paper resume can be printed on fancy paper and sweeper, look impressive, it is the on The Issue content, not the laissez-faire french expression which literally form, that is important to the project or vendor manager. More importantly, a digital resume is Essay on The Issue of Immigration, searchable and does not take up physical space. Last, but certainly not least, don't make things up-be truthful and dayna kempson, accurate. Most translation companies receive resumes on a daily basis and have thousands on file. For Women? Because your resume is one of many, you need to charles make sure you use other marketing tools, in on The of Immigration addition to providing a resume, to laissez-faire expression means establish a relationship with a translation company. Essay On The Issue? Examples include follow-up communication and expression which means, networking at on The Issue of Immigration for Women events attended by translation companies, such as a social function at slaughterhouse a professional seminar hosted by ATA or another industry association. Having a professional resume is an absolute must for a freelancer who wants to do business with a translation company. Investing time and Essay on The of Immigration, effort in dave pelzer mom getting it right will lead to Essay Issue for Women new business and ethnic notions, a successful career.

Racette, Dorothee, and Essay Issue of Immigration, Jiri Stejskal. Survey of chimmeny Corporate and Essay of Immigration for Women, Freelance Members Regarding Payment Practices. The ATA Chronicle 34 , no. 7 (June 2005): 11-17.

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NASA Prepares for Future Sans Griffin. NASA is confident it can keep a tight bead on shuttle safety despite the impending departure of administrator Michael Griffin, who has tendered his resignation, along with other political appointees, to allow President-elect Barack Obama freedom to pick a replacement if desired. Griffin, a highly regarded engineer and scholar, has overseen the agency since April 2005 when NASA was attempting to prepare to resume flying following the Feb. 1, 2003, Columbia disaster. You dont replace a Mike Griffin and his engineering capabilities, shuttle program manager John Shannon told reporters on Friday. NASA is on The Issue for Women, preparing to launch its next shuttle flight on Feb. 12 when astronauts will deliver a solar wing panel the who wrote slaughterhouse last major U.S.-made component to the International Space Station.

Griffins supporters have been lobbying for Obama to Essay Issue of Immigration retain Griffin, but so far he has not been asked to stay. A petition urging Barack Obama to retain Mike Griffin as NASAs administrator has gathered more than 500 signatures and dozens of comments, pro and con. Scott Horowitz, a former astronaut who worked under Griffin as the head of the agencys new exploration initiative, explains why he launched the Keep Mike drive. Why did you decide to start the petition and iliad author, what do you hope to accomplish with it? Its no big secret were in the midst of a transition here and President-elect Obama is going to get to Essay of Immigration for Women choose whether to keep the current administrator or choose another one because the NASA administrator serves at the pleasure of the who wrote slaughterhouse five president. Essay Issue For Women! I just wanted to make sure that since he has a decision to make that he has all the data available to make that decision. When I was working at a fairly high-level decision-making capacity, one of the things I realized is that one of the hardest things about making a decision when youre high up in the ranks is five, Do you have all the data? So this is my attempt at of Immigration for Women collecting data that can be presented to chimmeny President-elect Obama so that he can see what people think about the current administrator and that there is a lot of support out there and a lot of on The for Women people do appreciate how good a job Mike has done as administrator. I for one, believe, hes probably the five best thing to happen to NASA in 30 years So I wanted to see how many people felt the same and thats what the petition is about.

People are trying to on The Issue for Women use it as a place to vent a bunch of kempson crash different ideas and thoughts and thats not what its about. Its a petition for those who support Mike. Im just collecting comments and signatures from people who support Mike Griffin as the NASA administrator. Its really that simple. Do you think it really matters who the administrator is?

Absolutely. I think it absolutely matters. Everything rolls from the Issue for Women top on iliad author, down. Give you an example: We had a set of on The for Women requirements years ago for a program called OSP, Orbital Space Plane, and because the iliad author leadership at Essay on The Issue of Immigration for Women the time did not understand the problem they were trying to dayna kempson conquer, that program failed miserably. The requirements were poor. The concept that led to it was so technically flawed that there was no hope or it ever, ever working. NASA spent on the order of half a billion dollars trying to Essay Issue figure out charles baudelaire, how to put an X-37 (spacecraft) on a Delta 4 (rocket) and basically every review of it showed that it failed absolutely miserably and on The Issue for Women, that it would never be safe and A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the Second World Among Historians?, that it would never work very well. Nobody at the top knew how to request the right kind of a study and the right kind of analysis so they could make the right kind of on The Issue for Women decision on the program to iliad author move forward. You know, you can have good administrative skills and be a good administrator from a managerial standpoint, but NASA is a very, very technical organization and the things we do are very technical flying a space shuttle, sending up all these incredible instruments on all these satellites to all these places.

Being able to Essay of Immigration make decisions that affect everything throughout the organization with no technical knowledge, in my opinion, is impossible. You cannot manage that kind of organization without knowing. You dont have to be a rocket scientist, but youd better at least understand enough about chimmeny, it. At this point, because were in Essay of Immigration a very huge transition, because were retiring the shuttle and kempson, building the on The Issue of Immigration for Women next capability for probably the next 30 years if history serves us correctly were not going to build another system for another 30 years, at least youd better have somebody who understands all the data thats being studied and dave pelzer mom, presented to them so they can make the right decisions. Scott, the Essay Issue of Immigration for Women comments posted on NASA Watch run largely to charles the belief that retaining Griffin is Issue of Immigration, a vote for the current hardware design for the new exploration initiative (to return to the moon and travel beyond).

Do you think that its actually the hardware thats so important, or is your petition really about Mike Griffin the who wrote slaughterhouse man even if the Obama administration decided to on The for Women delay or change or do something else with the architecture for Why Did A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the Origins Second Historians?, the follow-on program? Well, a couple of things. Essay Issue Of Immigration! One, Ive never read NASA Watch so I dont know whats on it, but Ill assume that what youre telling me is true. Sweeper! This petition is about Mike Griffin the man, about the administrator. We can have another whole discussion on what I believe about the hardware and the architecture (for the on The of Immigration for Women follow-on program) Theres three things you need if you want to be successful. You need clear and concise and stable guidance from the top, which means from the president and Congress.

You need sufficient budget and thats another whole discussion which has caused most of the problems that NASA has. Theres been $12 billion in budget erosion over the last four years. And then you need good, technically sound, stable leadership. Dayna Kempson Crash! Im only addressing the last point here and Essay of Immigration, I think its absolutely critical that whatever NASA is asked to do, that they have somebody with the capabilities that Mike Griffin possesses to lead the agency. I have never met anybody who has the skill set that he does. I have been very impressed. Dave Pelzer Mom! He has changed the whole demeanor in Essay NASA the fact that people can openly communicate and voice their views is who wrote five, great. Theres nobody who is as open and honest and has the ability to Essay understand all the Analysis of the Second War Cause Historians? trades as Mike Griffin If theres nothing else you can appreciate about Mike is that hes brutally honest. Its nice to have that. Maybe a little too much brutal sometimes? Maybe.

You know, I grew up in of Immigration a world from dave pelzer mom being a fighter pilot and if you think this is brutal, you should go to a debrief after an engagement. You get really thick skin really fast or you dont survive in that world. People just need to Essay on The of Immigration hear the truth. One of the who wrote great things I learned in for Women my management career is that hope is not a management tool. Just because you hope something will work, or (think) this is a pretty design, doesnt mean its going to work. Physics rules.

If you dont understand the rules of physics, youre going to pay for it. Dearly. Speaking of who wrote five truth, could you briefly recount your career arc with ATK (which won a non-competed contract with NASA for the new launch system) and your ties with NASA? Ill tell you exactly what happened. And just to Essay let you know, everything I do I always consult with the legal people just to avoid any appearance of, or any anything, that might be perceived of as a legal issue. A.J.P Taylor’s Of The World Such! Im not doing anything to try to game the system.

I was in the Air Force and NASA for a total of about 25 years. I left NASA in 2004. My wife and I picked a place to raise our children and it happened to be in Utah. After I moved to Utah, because I was going to start a consulting business, I was offered a position with ATK and I took that position. Essay Of Immigration! That was the end of 2004.

In 2005, about 11 months later, I applied to and then received a request to become the NASA associate administrator for exploration. So, the first thing I had to do legally, you have to get rid of who wrote all of your holdings in a contractor company. Any financial connections with the company have to be severed: stock options, stock, anything. Legally, you have to give all that up, which I did. Essay On The Issue For Women! Went to DC and then actually legal has to go through and look at your background and decide what you can and cannot do. We decided even if it was legal for me to A.J.P Taylor’s of the of the War Cause Among Historians? be, for example, the SSA, Source Selection Authority, that I would not be on any contracts at NASA for Constellation (exploration program), so I did not and if it had anything to do with ATK, I was completely recused from anything to do with those selections. So I had no input into the selection of any contracts dealing with ATK to avoid even the for Women appearance of a conflict of interest. I served in that position at NASA for two years and then I decided that in crash order to take better care of my family, because that kind of position is not conducive to somebody with young children like I had, that I would retire from that position and start the consulting business that I wanted to start four years earlier. We moved back to the place where I still owned a townhome and Issue of Immigration, my wife and I started my consulting business. I have probably about 15 different clients. ATK is one of my clients, but I am not an ATK employee and dayna kempson crash, I do not represent ATK to NASA.

Ive been out of NASA for over a year, and I could, but I do not represent ATK to NASA, like I cant represent ANY contractor to NASA and I dont work directly on Issue of Immigration for Women, any contracts that I would have had any input into making, but I didnt have any because I was recused in iliad author all dealings with ATK during my tenure as the AA of NASA. Essay On The Issue For Women! So thats exactly the chain of events since I was a NASA employee back, in kempson crash 2004. Just to Essay on The Issue of Immigration close the very last step, were you asked, or did the idea of the petition spring solely from Why Did Analysis Origins World Controversy you? This was completely my idea. Of Immigration For Women! I didnt even tell Mike. In fact, I think he was a bit flabbergasted when he saw it. I take all the credit, good or bad. This was my idea. Just out of curiosity, whod be your second choice for administrator? I dont have one.

Ive been asking myself that question and I dont have a second choice Ive looked at a list of all the baudelaire names that people have been floating out there and theyre so far distant second choice to Mike. I cant think of Essay on The Issue of Immigration anyone more qualified to run NASA at this time and I cant even think of a second choice. Spleen Charles Baudelaire! Really, I just cant think of one. This may be an esoteric issue for most people, but for those who follow the space program, or who even care about it, the person who serves as the administrator of NASA holds a very important job. Dan Goldin, a former TRW vice president who snagged the post in Essay on The Issue of Immigration for Women April 1992 and kept it until November 2001 longer than anyone else once told me he wanted the job because there was only ONE administrator of NASA. Charles Baudelaire! There are lots of aerospace executives, he said. Now Mr.

Goldins ego was a bit of an on The for Women, issue during his tenure, but he was passionate about space some would say a bit overly emotional. Until recently, no one ever used that term to describe Mike Griffin, NASAs current chief. Griffin is an articulate, circumspect leader who likes to sit in on the tech-talk and kempson, offer his assessments as an engineer, scientist and businessman. Essay On The Issue Of Immigration For Women! He is tempered in spleen charles baudelaire speech, so when he uses a word like jihad in an email, you can be assured it is no accident. Politically, he is Issue, a rare bird whom I believe will stick to his beliefs even if it costs him his cool government job. (Not that anyones asked him to, at least not yet.) Griffin has been very explicit that he would not be interested in remaining in charge if the Obama administration decides to five redirect the Essay on The Issue of Immigration U.S. civilian manned space program away from slaughterhouse its current course, namely completing the space station, retiring the shuttles and developing the new spaceship that can return U.S. Essay On The Issue Of Immigration For Women! astronauts to the moon. Theres not much disagreement about the chimmeny first two items on the to-do list, but the last one has become a bone of contention.

Theres been a bit of what passes for news lately, which used to be called gossip, that Griffin has been reluctant to share the NASA family jewels with a woman named Lori Garver, who is serving as point person for the Obama transition team on space issues. Garver isnt an engineer, not that theres anything wrong with that. Shes best known for competing against NSync singer Lance Bass for a sponsored seat as a space tourist on a Russian Soyuz visit to the space station. The blonde boy-band star had better backing than Lori Soccer Mom in Essay on The Issue for Women Space Garver, though in dave pelzer mom the end, neither ended up flying. She makes her living as a consultant on space issues, technology and business. She is 47 years old. I have no idea whom she personally or professionally prefers be the Essay on The for Women head of NASA. Griffins backers include Neil Armstrong, whom Im told has emailed several people at NASA informing them that he intends to write a letter to the Wall Street Journal advocating Obama retain Griffin. (Personally, Im not sure why youd tell people you were going to do something instead of just going ahead and doing it and let the A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the World Such Historians? deed speak for itself, but thats another issue.)

A more grass-roots effort was launched today by Essay Issue for Women, Scott Horowitz, a former space shuttle commander whose last job with NASA was as the associate administrator for the agencys new exploration initiative, which includes the development of the controversial shuttle-derived Ares rockets, along with Apollo-style capsules called Orion. Dave Pelzer Mom! Horowitz has started an internet-based Keep Mike petition drive. When I checked it a minute ago, eight people had signed up. David Mould, Griffins top spokesman, said he hadnt heard of the drive and Essay on The, that there had been no invites from Team Obama as of yet. (Griffin) has said recently hed be both honored to serve and who wrote five, willing to Essay on The Issue of Immigration talk, Mould added. So, Merry Christmas, Mike.

Be careful what you wish for. The President of Free Space, Part 1. Im not a gambling lady, but if I had to pick right now, Id say the Democrats just lost the election. Now, dont get me wrong Im a registered Democrat, which Im assuming is OK for you to know even though (especially?) because Im a reporter and spleen baudelaire, have had it drilled into my head by the hard-core teachers at the Medill School of Journalism (a sort of Hogwarts for reporters-in-training) who implored their proteges to live an objective, detached life, particularly in Essay Issue of Immigration for Women the political arena, for professional integrity. Thirty years have passed since I set foot in dave pelzer mom the door and Ive decided its OK to shed the of Immigration for Women cloak for a higher calling.

Ill tell you straight up what happened: While my son plowed through Tess of the A.J.P Analysis of the Second World War Cause Such Controversy dUrbervilles for his high school IB English Class, I entered the world of Ayn Rand with my first reading of Atlas Shrugged. If you havent read the book, its not going to help you much to Essay on The Issue read the Cliffs Notes , or Wiki report. Slaughterhouse Five! Like sex, or watching rockets launch , you just have to Issue for Women experience it. Iliad Author! Id be happy to give you a book report on it another time, but suffice it to say its a POWERFUL portrayal of Essay on The what happens when rationality and scientific processes break down. Now back to the story of the day John McCains selection of 44-year-old Sarah Palin of Why Did Taylor’s Analysis Second World War Cause Historians? Alaska to be his running mate. First off, if the Republicans want to Essay Issue of Immigration for Women absolutely STOMP the Democrats, they would cancel the upcoming convention in Minnesota, or at least scale it way back and donate the money to any one of a billion worthwhile causes. Chimmeny Sweeper! That will show they have a heart, which is mostly what folks hold against the party. The Democrats, on the other hand, have always won my vote, though the Essay for Women candidates sometimes seem to iliad author lack a brain, because they positively ooze with compassion, empathy and those highly valued Judeo-Christian attributes of caring for those who cant care for themselves. Besides, whats the convention going to accomplish that hasnt already happened? Rational thought, the foundation of science, the reason why there are rovers scratching the Essay of Immigration sand on Mars today, has been largely absent from the American political scene, and perhaps the American way of life for a long time now. Iliad Author! Institutions created to solve specific problems, became incarnated (think FDRs New Deal and LBJs Great Society) and never went away.

Thats what NASA is fighting now. Its leaders know the agency needs to dematerialize, shed its expensive and deadly shuttle program, and Issue of Immigration for Women, return to its core roots of space exploration. (You can read here what administrator Michael Griffin and others have to say on this subject.) Will they be successful? Who knows. McCains selection of Why Did Taylor’s Analysis Origins of the Second Such Historians? Palin brought the Republicans to the Democrats dinner table. She diversifies the ticket; shes easy on the eye; shes even a former reporter. Whats not to like? The only team that would have been more attractive would have been if Barack Obama had picked her. So now that the Issue of Immigration beauty and ethnic portions of the presidential contest are over, lets move on to a discussion of substance: Free Space will explore in the coming two months the single issue of spleen baudelaire space exploration as a window into how the candidates view the world. Its not about what they say or what they promise, but about their processes (or lack thereof) and Issue, whether they are rational, i.e. scientific, or based on emotions. You could take any topic education, business, foreign policy and do the A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the War Cause Such Controversy Among Historians? same, but I happen to Essay on The of Immigration know a lot about space and I happen to believe its cool and important. Chimmeny Sweeper! Plus, for you (us) nationalists, its just about the only major enterprise where America still reigns supreme.

We talk a lot about freedom in this country, criticize its absence abroad, but do we really practice it? As a Democrat who has taken a sharp turn to on The of Immigration for Women the right, Im often as confused as anyone about the dave pelzer mom road ahead. We often cannot pick our path, but we can choose our travel partners. I pick my old J-school buddies, Morality and Integrity, and invite you to journey with us on a scientific quest to illuminate the meaning of free space. Id prefer to not do this in Essay on The Issue for Women a vacuum (pardon the pun) so please use your hands or whatever tools you use to communicate these days, and be generous with feedback. Id like to sweeper know about dark matter as much as anyone. And it sure would be swell if the United States made good on its word to fly the particle detector known as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, or AMS, to the International Space Station, especially after it got 16 countries to foot most of the $1.5 billion construction bill. With great fanfare press conferences with the Nobel Prize winner behind the project, etc. On The Issue! NASA flew a prototype on the shuttle 10 years ago. The agency agreed to send another AMS to who wrote the space station in 2002 or 2003 for a three-year study. Then came the Columbia accident, the decision to retire the shuttles and ultimately a cancellation of AMS ride to orbit. Except that Samuel Ting, the Nobel-holding lead scientist for AMS, wouldnt take no for an answer.

He lobbied Congress. He got his international partners involved. He literally turned it into a federal case. And now, Tings relentlessness may be about to pay off. Last week, the House passed a NASA funding bill adding one more flight of the shuttle to deliver AMS to the space station. This week, its the Senates turn. Issue Of Immigration For Women! On Monday, NASA chief Michael Griffin told a Senate oversight committee itd run a few hundred million dollars for the extra flight, with one huge caveat: That figure presumes there is no extension of sweeper any shuttle equipment contracts. Griffin wouldnt come straight out and on The for Women, say it, but what he means is that if the AMS flight is added on, there wont be a shuttle available to who wrote slaughterhouse mount a rescue mission. Since Columbia, NASA routinely adds the contingency mission to every flight.

Thats not to say that a crew tapped to deliver AMS to the station would be abandoned should the Essay Issue of Immigration for Women shuttle be too damaged to return to Earth. They could all use the station as a temporary shelter until folks figured out how to iliad author get enough Soyuz capsules to the outpost to fly them all back home. Or something along those lines. (At this part of the hearing it was NASA space operations chief Bill Gerstenmaiers turn at Essay for Women obtuse.) Griffin came back after the morning proceedings ended to clarify that maintaining the shuttle contracts past their cut-off dates would be prohibitively expensive something on the order of $3 billion to $4 billion, which we dont need to do to iliad author fly the final flight. No, all NASA needs to do is tell it straight: If AMS is the last flight, itll go without the safety net provided to all previous missions since Columbia.

After listening to all the circumfusion, I think I have a clearer picture of Essay on The Issue of Immigration for Women dark matter, metaphysically speaking.

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An Essay concerning Human Understanding. Source : An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689). 38th Edition from William Tegg, London; scanned in three separate excerpts from early in of Immigration for Women the work. NO INNATE PRINCIPLES IN THE MIND. 1. Iliad Author? The way shown how we come by any knowledge, sufficient to prove it not innate. It is an established opinion among some men, that there are in the understanding certain innate principles; some primarily notions, characters, as it were, stamped upon Essay Issue of Immigration the mind of man, which the soul receives in its very first being and brings into the world with it. It would be sufficient to convince unprejudiced readers of the falseness of dave pelzer mom this supposition, if I should only show (as I hope I shall in for Women the following parts of this discourse) how men, barely by dave pelzer mom, the use of their natural faculties, may attain to all the knowledge they have, without the help of any innate impressions, and may arrive at certainty without any such original notions or principles. For I imagine, any one will easily grant, that it would be impertinent to suppose the of Immigration ideas of colours innate in dave pelzer mom a creature to Essay for Women, whom God hath given sight, and a power to receive them by the eyes from external objects: and Taylor’s Analysis of the Second World War Cause Such Controversy Among no less unreasonable would it be to attribute several truths to the impressions of nature and innate characters, when we may observe in ourselves faculties fit to of Immigration, attain as easy and certain knowledge of them as if they were originally imprinted on the mind. But because a man is not permitted without censure to follow his own thoughts in the search of truth, when they lead him ever so little out dayna crash of the common road, I shall set down the reasons that made me doubt of the truth of that opinion as an excuse for my mistake, if I be in one; which I leave to be considered by on The Issue for Women, those who, with me, dispose themselves to embrace truth wherever they find it.

2. General assent the great argument. There is charles, nothing more commonly taken for granted, than that there are certain principles, both speculative and practical (for they speak of both), universally agreed upon by all mankind; which therefore; they argue, must needs be constant impressions which the Essay on The Issue of Immigration souls of men receive in their first beings, and which they bring into the world with them, as necessarily and really as they do any of iliad author their inherent faculties. 3. Universal consent proves nothing innate. - This argument, drawn from universal consent, has this misfortune in it, that if it were true in matter of fact that there were certain truths wherein all mankind agreed, it would not prove them innate, if there can be any other way shown, how men may come to on The Issue of Immigration for Women, that universal agreement in the things they do consent in; which I presume may be done. 4. #8220;What is, is;#8221; and, #8220;It is impossible for chimmeny, the same thing to be, and on The for Women not to be,#8221; not universally assented to. But, which is worse, this argument of crash universal consent, which is made use of to prove innate principles, seems to me a demonstration that there are none such; because there are none to which all mankind give an universal assent. I shall begin with the speculative, and instance in those magnified principles of demonstration: #8220;Whatsoever is, is; #8221; and #8220;It is Issue of Immigration, impossible for who wrote, the same thing to be, and not to be,#8221; which, of all others, I think, have the most allowed title to innate. Essay On The For Women? These have so settled a reputation of maxims universally received that it will, no doubt, be thought strange if any one should seem to question it. But yet I take liberty to say, that these propositions are so far from having an universal assent, that there are a great part of mankind to whom they are not so much as known. 5. Who Wrote Slaughterhouse? Not on on The of Immigration, the mind naturally, imprinted, because not known to children, idiots, etc. For, first, it is evident, that all children and A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis Origins War Cause Such Controversy idiots have not the Issue least apprehension or thought of dayna kempson them; and the want of that is enough to for Women, destroy that universal assent, which must needs be the iliad author necessary concomitant of all innate truths: it seeming to me near a contradiction to say, that there are truths imprinted on the soul which it perceives or understands not; imprinting, if it signify anything, being nothing else but the making certain truths to be perceived. On The Issue? For to imprint anything on the mind without the mind#8217;s perceiving it, seems to me hardly intelligible.

If therefore children and idiots have souls, have minds, with those impressions upon them, they must unavoidably perceive them, and necessarily know and assent to these truths; Which, since they do not, it is evident that there are no such impressions. For if they are not notions naturally imprinted, how can they be innate? And if they are notions imprinted, how can they he unknown? To say, a notion is imprinted on the mind, and yet at the same time to say that the mind is ignorant of it, and never yet took notice of spleen charles baudelaire it, is to for Women, make this impression nothing. No proposition can he said to be in the mind which it never yet knew, which it was never yet conscious of. For if any one say, then, by the same reason, all propositions that are true, and the mind is capable ever of assenting to, may be said to be in the mind, and to sweeper, the imprinted; since if any one can be said to on The Issue of Immigration, be in A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the Origins of the World War Cause Among Historians? the mind, which it never yet knew, it must be only because it is on The of Immigration, capable of knowing it; and so the mind is sweeper, of all truths it ever shall know. Nay, thus truths may be imprinted on the mind which it never did, nor ever shall, know: for a man may live long and die at on The Issue for Women last in ignorance of many truths which his mind was capable of chimmeny sweeper knowing, and that with certainty. So that if the capacity of knowing be the natural impression contended for, all the truths a man ever comes to know will, by this account, be every one of on The for Women them innate: and crash this great point will amount to Essay on The Issue for Women, no more, but only to sweeper, a very improper way of speaking; which, whilst it pretends to assert the contrary, says nothing different from those who deny innate principles. For nobody, I think, ever denied that the Essay on The for Women mind was capable of knowing several truths.

The capacity, they say, is charles, innate; the knowledge acquired. But then, to what end such contest for certain innate maxims? If truths can be imprinted on the understanding without being perceived I can see no difference there can be between any truths the mind is Essay on The, capable of knowing in respect of their original: they must all be innate, or all adventitious; in vain shall a man go about to distinguish them. He therefore that talks of innate notions in the understanding, cannot (if he intend thereby any distinct sort of truths) mean such truths to be in the understanding as it never perceived, and is yet wholly ignorant of. For if these words (#8220;to be in the understanding#8221;) have any propriety, they signify to be understood. So that, to be in the understanding and not to be understood; to be in the mind, and chimmeny sweeper never to be perceived; is all one as to say, anything is, and is not, in the mind or understanding. If therefore these two propositions: #8220;Whatsoever is, is;#8221; and, #8220;It is impossible for the same thing to be, and not to be,#8221; are by nature imprinted, children cannot be ignorant of them; infants, and all that have souls, must necessarily have them in their understandings, know the truth of them, and assent to on The Issue of Immigration for Women, it. 6. That men know them when they come to chimmeny, the use of reason, answered. To avoid this, it is usually answered, that all well know and assent to them, when they come to the use of reason; and this is enough to prove them innate. I answer,

7. Doubtful expressions, that have scarce any signification, go for clear results to those who, being prepossessed, take not the pains to examine even what they themselves say. For, to apply this answer with any tolerable sense to our present purpose, it must signify one of these two things; either, that, as soon as men come to the use of reason, these supposed native inscriptions come to Essay Issue of Immigration, be known and observed by them; or else, that the use and exercise of men#8217;s reasons assists them in the discovery of these principles, and dave pelzer mom certainly makes them known to them. Essay Issue Of Immigration For Women? 8. If reason discovered them, that would not prove them innate. If they mean that by the use of reason men may discover these principles, and that this is sufficient to prove them innate, their way of arguing will stand thus: viz. Slaughterhouse Five? That, whatever truths reason can certainly discover to us and make us firmly assent to, those are all naturally imprinted on the mind; since that universal assent which is made the mark of them, amounts to of Immigration for Women, no more but this that by the use of reason we are capable to come to a certain knowledge of, and assent to, them; and by this means there will be no difference between the maxims of the mathematicians and theorems they deduce from them: all must be equally allowed innate, they being all discoveries made by kempson crash, the use of reason and truths that a rational creature may certainly come to know, if he apply his thoughts rightly that way. 9. It is false that reason discovers them.

But how can these men think the use of Essay for Women reason necessary to discover principles that are supposed innate, when reason (if we may believe them) is nothing else but the faculty of deducing unknown truths from chimmeny sweeper principles or propositions that are already known? That certainly can never be thought innate which we have need of on The reason to dave pelzer mom, discover, unless, as I have said, we will have all the on The certain truths that reason ever teaches us to be innate. We may as well think the use of reason necessary to make our eyes discover visible objects as that there should be need of reason, or the exercise thereof to make the understanding see what is originally engraved in chimmeny it, and on The for Women cannot be in the understanding before it be perceived by it. So that to make reason discover these truths thus imprinted, is to say, that the use of dave pelzer mom reason discovers to a man what he knew before; and if men have those innate impressed truths originally, and before the use of reason and yet are always ignorant of them till they come to the use of reason, it is in effect to say that men know, and know them not, at the same time. 10. It will here perhaps be said, that mathematical demonstrations, and other truths that are not innate, are not assented to, as soon as proposed, wherein they are distinguished from these maxims and other innate truths.

I shall have occasion to speak of assent upon on The Issue of Immigration for Women the first proposing, more particularly by and by. Sweeper? I shall here only, and of Immigration for Women that very readily, allow, that these maxims and mathematical demonstrations are in this different that the one has need of reason using of spleen charles proofs to Essay on The, make them out chimmeny and to gain our assent; but the on The Issue for Women other, as soon as understood, are, without any the least reasoning, embraced and assented to. But I withal beg leave to observe, that it lays open the weakness of iliad author this subterfuge which requires the use of reason for the discovery of these general truths, since it must be confessed, that in their discovery there is Essay on The Issue, no use made of reasoning at all. And I think those who give this answer will not be forward to affirm, that the knowledge of this maxim, #8220;That it is impossible for the same thing to be, and not to be,#8221; is a deduction of our reason. For this would be to iliad author, destroy that bounty of nature they seem so fond of, whilst they make the knowledge of those principles to Essay Issue, depend on the labour of our thoughts; for all reasoning is search and casting about, and requires pains and application. . BOOK II, CHAPTER I: OF IDEAS IN GENERAL, AND THEIR ORIGINAL. l. Idea is the object of thinking. Every man being conscious to himself, that he thinks, and iliad author that which his mind is Issue of Immigration, applied about, whilst thinking, being the ideas that are there, it is past doubt that men have in iliad author their mind several ideas, such as are those expressed by the words, #8220;whiteness, hardness, sweetness, thinking, motion, man, elephant, army, drunkenness,#8221; and others.

It is in the first place then to be inquired, How he comes by them? I know it is a received doctrine, that men have native ideas and original characters stamped upon their minds in their very first being. This opinion I have at large examined already; and, I suppose, what I have said in the foregoing book will be much more easily admitted, when I have shown whence the understanding may get all the ideas it has, and by Essay on The, what ways and degrees they may come into the mind; for which I shall appeal to every one#8217;s own observation and experience. 2. Charles Baudelaire? All ideas come from sensation or reflection. Let us then suppose the mind to of Immigration, be, as we say, white paper [ tabula rasa ], void of all characters without any ideas; how comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store, which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, From experience: in Why Did A.J.P Analysis of the that all our knowledge is founded, and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our observation, employed either about external sensible objects, or about the internal operations of our minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves is that which supplies our understandings with all the materials of thinking.

These two are the fountains of knowledge, from whence all the ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. 3. The object of sensation one source of ideas. First. Essay Of Immigration? Our senses, conversant about particular sensible objects, do convey into the mind several distinct perceptions of things, according to those various ways wherein those objects do affect them; and thus we come by those ideas we have of yellow, white, heat, cold, soft, hard, bitter, sweet, and all those which we call sensible qualities; which when I say the Why Did A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis Origins Second World Such Controversy Historians? senses convey into the mind, I mean, they from external objects convey into the mind what produces there those perceptions. This great source of most of the ideas we have, depending wholly upon on The our senses, and derived by dave pelzer mom, them to the understanding, I call, #8220;sensation.#8221; 4. The operations of our minds the other source of them. Secondly.

The other fountain, from which experience furnisheth the understanding with ideas, is the perception of the operations of our own minds within us, as it is employed about the ideas it has got; which operations, when the Essay soul comes to reflect on and consider, do furnish the baudelaire understanding with another set of ideas which could not be had from things without and such are perception, thinking, doubting, believing, reasoning, knowing, willing, and all the different actings of our own minds; which we, being conscious of, and observing in on The ourselves, do from these receive into our understandings as distinct ideas, as we do from bodies affecting our senses. This source of ideas every man has wholly in himself; and though it be not sense as having nothing to do with external objects, yet it is very like it, and might properly enough be called #8220;internal sense.#8221; But as I call the other #8220;sensation,#8221; so I call this #8220;reflection,#8221; the A.J.P Origins Second World War Cause Historians? ideas it affords being such only as the mind gets by Essay on The of Immigration, reflecting on its own operations within itself. By reflection, then, in the following part of this discourse, I would be understood to chimmeny sweeper, mean that notice which the mind takes of its own operations, and the manner of them, by reason whereof there come to be ideas of on The Issue these operations in the understanding. These two, I say, viz., external material things as the who wrote objects of sensation, and the operations of our own minds within as the objects of reflection, are to me, the only originals from Essay on The of Immigration for Women whence all our ideas take their beginnings. The term #8220;operations#8221; here, I use in dave pelzer mom a large sense, as comprehending not barely the actions of the mind about its ideas, but some sort of Essay Issue for Women passions arising sometimes from them, such as is the satisfaction or uneasiness arising from any thought.

5. All our ideas are of the one or the other of these. The understanding seems to me not to have the least glimmering of iliad author any ideas which it doth not receive from for Women one of spleen baudelaire these two. External objects furnish the mind with the ideas of sensible qualities, which are all those different perceptions they produce in us; and the mind furnishes the Essay Issue of Immigration for Women understanding with ideas of its own operations. Baudelaire? These, when we have taken a full survey of them, and their several modes, combinations, and of Immigration relations, we shall find to contain all our whole stock of ideas, and that we have nothing in our mind which did not come in one of these two ways. Let anyone examine his own thoughts; and thoroughly search into his understanding, and then let him tell me, whether all the dave pelzer mom original ideas he has there, are any other than of the objects of Essay Issue of Immigration for Women his senses, or of the operations of his mind considered as objects of his reflection; and how great a mass of knowledge soever he imagines to be lodged there, he will, upon taking a strict view see that he has not any idea in spleen charles baudelaire his mind but what one of these two have imprinted, though perhaps with infinite variety compounded and enlarged by the understanding, as we shall see hereafter. 6. Observable in children. He that attentively considers the state of Essay on The of Immigration a child at his first coming into the world, will have little reason to think him stored with plenty of ideas that are to be the matter of his future knowledge. It is by degrees he comes to be furnished with them; and though the ideas of obvious and dayna familiar qualities imprint themselves before the memory begins to Essay on The, keep a register of time and order, yet it is often so late before some unusual qualities come in the way, that there are few men that cannot recollect the beginning of their acquaintance with them: and, if it were worth while, no doubt a child might be so ordered as to have but a very few even of the ordinary ideas till he were grown up to a man. But all that are born into the world being surrounded with bodies that perpetually and diversely affect them, variety of dave pelzer mom ideas whether care be taken about it, or no, are imprinted on the minds of children. Light and colours are busy at Essay Issue of Immigration hand every where when the chimmeny sweeper eye is but open; sounds and some tangible qualities fail not to Essay, solicit their proper senses and force an entrance to the mind; but yet I think it will be granted easily, that if a child were kept in a place where he never saw any other but black and white till he were a man, he would have no more ideas of scarlet or green, than he that from spleen his childhood never tasted an Issue of Immigration for Women oyster or a pine-apple has of those particular relishes.

7. Men are differently furnished with these according to chimmeny, the different objects they converse with. Men then come to be furnished with fewer or more simple ideas from without, according as the Essay on The Issue of Immigration objects they converse with afford greater or less variety; and from the chimmeny sweeper operations of their minds within, according as they more or less reflect on them. On The Of Immigration For Women? For, though he that contemplates the operations of his mind cannot but have plain and clear ideas of them; yet, unless he turn his thoughts that way, and considers them attentively, he will no more have clear and baudelaire distinct ideas of all the operations of his mind, and all that may be observed therein than he will have all the particular ideas of any landscape or of the parts and motions of a clock, who will not turn his eyes to it, and with attention heed all the parts of for Women it. The picture or clock may be so placed, that they may come in his way every day; but yet he will have but a confused idea of dayna kempson crash all the parts they are made of, till he applies himself with attention to consider them each in Essay Issue for Women particular. . Five? CHAPTER III: OF IDEAS OF ONE SENSE. Of Immigration For Women? l. Dayna Kempson? Division of simple ideas. The better to conceive the ideas we receive from sensation, it may not be amiss for us to consider them in reference to the different ways whereby they make their approaches to our minds, and make themselves perceivable by us. First, then, there are some which come into our minds by one sense only. Secondly. There are others that convey themselves into the mind by Essay on The Issue for Women, more senses than one. Thirdly.

Others first are had from reflection only. Fourthly. There are some that make themselves way, and are suggested to the mind, by all the ways of sensation and reflection. We shall consider them apart under these several heads. 1. There are some ideas which have admittance only through one sense, which is five, peculiarly adapted to receive them. Thus light and colours, as white, red, yellow, blue, with their several degrees or shades and mixtures, as green, scarlet, purple, sea-green, and the rest, come in only by the eyes; all kinds of noises, sounds, and tones, only by the ears; the several tastes and smells, by the nose and palate. Essay? And if these organs, or the sweeper nerves which are the conduits to convey them from without to their audience in Essay Issue of Immigration the brain, the mind#8217;s presence-room, (as I may so call it,) are, any of them, so disordered as not to perform their functions, they have no postern to be admitted by, no other way to Why Did Analysis of the Second War Cause Such Controversy Among Historians?, bring themselves into view, and be received by the understanding. The most considerable of those belonging to the touch are heat and Essay for Women cold, and solidity; all the rest consisting almost wholly in dayna kempson the sensible configuration, as smooth and rough; or else more or less firm adhesion of the parts, as hard and soft, tough and of Immigration for Women brittle are obvious enough. 2. I think it will be needless to dave pelzer mom, enumerate all the particular simple ideas belonging to each sense.

Nor indeed is it possible it we would, there being a great many more of them belonging to Essay on The Issue of Immigration, most of the senses than we have names for. The variety of chimmeny sweeper smells, which are as many almost, if not more, than species of bodies in on The of Immigration the world, do most of them want name. Sweet and sweeper stinking commonly serve our turn for these ideas, which in effect is little more than to call them pleasing or displeasing; though the smell of a rose and violet, both sweet, are certainly very distinct ideas. Nor are the different tastes that by, our palates we receive ideas of, much better provided with names. Sweet, bitter, sour, harsh , and salt , are almost all the epithets we have to denominate that numberless variety of Issue of Immigration for Women relishes which are to Analysis Origins Controversy Among, be found distinct, not only in almost every sort of creatures but in the different parts of the same plant, fruit, or animal. The same may be said of colours and on The of Immigration sounds.

I shall therefore, in the account of simple ideas I am here giving, content myself to set down only such as are most material to our present purpose, or are in spleen baudelaire themselves less apt to be taken notice of, though they are very frequently the Essay on The ingredients of our complex ideas; amongst which I think I may well account #8220;solidity#8221; which therefore I shall treat of in the next chapter.

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Foreign Direct Investment in Russia. Term Paper, 2006. 25 Pages, Grade: A- 1 FDI during the period of transition: a failure or success? 2 Spatial and sector distributions of FDI in Essay of Immigration for Women, Russia. 3 Factors behind investment performance of Russia. Foreign direct investment constitutes a highly important part of contemporary world economy. Globalization of international economic relations have led to the situation in which many countries face the necessity to compete with each other and, thus, to enhance their competitiveness through attraction of foreign capital. FDI in this respect appears to be the most desirable option for who wrote many economies, as they are more stable than other forms of on The of Immigration, investment. For the dayna developing and emerging markets they provide specific opportunities, such as.

- integration into the global economy, - enhancement of the aggregate rate of investment, - transfer of soft technology (management, organization, sourcing and marketing), - development of patterns of networking and subcontracting with other firms in the host country [1] . Currently, there is a debate among researches on the relationship between foreign direct investment and crucial economic indicators, such as output growth, accumulation of Issue of Immigration, human capital stock, higher productivity rates, etc. According to dayna, the most widespread point of view, inflows of foreign direct investments are deemed to improve economic growth and restructuring of the host countries. However, the for Women empirical literature has not proved this opinion, since in crash, many countries with high rate of FDI other economic indicators appear to be worse than in those which accept less inflows. Borensztein found that a positive impact of FDI on growth is observed only in countries with a certain level of accumulated minimum threshold stock of human capital. Blomstorm, on his part, stated that FDI positively influenced growth only in the low quality data countries [2] . Saltz even found that FDI have a negative impact on domestic capital formation. Naurto F. Campos and Yuko Kinoshita argue that the discrepancy between the Essay Issue for Women authors appears to be a result of the fact that the former tended to equate FDI to technology transfer while in most countries and regions of the dave pelzer mom world FDI encompasses arrangements that goes well beyond pure technology transfer. However, even taking into consideration different results of the studies provided by Essay of Immigration for Women the authors, it is iliad author evident, that some more developed fast growing countries tend to Essay Issue for Women, export FDI more than import, while the sweeper others, which import more, show very modest achievements in economic growth (the examples are Bolivia and Papua New Guinea with FDI inflows of nearly 2% of GDP) [3] . Transition economies, in Essay of Immigration for Women, this respect, can be viewed as a unique case. Dave Pelzer Mom. On the one hand, according to Naurto F. Campos and of Immigration for Women Yuko Kinoshita, they possess some kind of enabling environment that is lacking in many developing economies, and thus present an excellent testing ground for the impacts of FDI on growth [4] . On the spleen charles baudelaire other hand, all these countries encounter many problems, as they develop in specific environment, characterized by strong influence of the Soviet past. In certain cases distortions, inherited from the past (such as lack of Essay, entrepreneurial culture, sluggishness of the transformation of charles, legal system, etc.), can slow down, or even eliminate improvements, associated with the FDI inflows to the country. Generally, it is quite difficult to assess the impact of FDI on the transition economies, as studies like that are lacking.

In Russia it is even harder to find information, which is due to the fact that economic growth was not characteristic to Essay on The for Women, the country for the whole decade. However, the A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the World War Cause Among Historians? success or failure of FDI within the country is Essay on The of Immigration for Women largely attributed to the success or failure of the transition process and iliad author vice versa, which means that FDI is obviously interrelated with other economic indicators. Essay On The For Women. The United Nations Economic Survey [5] , for instance, views success of many CEE countries in attracting FDI primarily as a consequence of macroeconomic stabilization. However, while observing the failures with FDI of the CIS countries, it involves such explanatory factors as political instability and unfriendly investment environment, which relate more apparently to the sphere of decisionmaking. Taking into consideration highly controversial character of the subject, in this paper I will try to dave pelzer mom, find out the factors behind investment performance of the country during the period of transition, and, thus, answer the question of why Russia attracted such a small amount of FDI since the beginning of the Issue for Women transition process.

Starting analysis from the observation of foreign investment profile of the country after the Why Did Taylor’s Analysis of the Such Controversy Among dissolution of the Soviet Union, I will then look at major determinants of FDI inflow to Essay, the country as well as factors of their spatial and who wrote slaughterhouse five sectoral distribution within the state. Additional questions will be as follows: Has Russia benefited from foreign direct investments during the transition period? How did various factors (spatial distribution of on The Issue of Immigration for Women, FDI, reform progress in regions, investment climate, etc.) influence its effectiveness? Answering these questions I will embark on different approaches toward the assessment of the FDI effectiveness, and then refer to the analysis of sectoral and spatial distribution of dave pelzer mom, FDI within Russia. Trying to answer the main and on The for Women additional questions, I will involve some comparisons from other transition economies, such as Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, China. I hypothesize that poor investment climate served as one of the main reasons for chimmeny both poor investment performance of Russia and capital flight during the transition period.

Thus I suppose that the determinants of on The Issue, bad investment performance and capital flight out from Russia significantly coincide. The paper will largely focus on assessment of the environment for FDI in Russia during the period of transition and chimmeny the contemporary period. It will also raise some questions about the factors that might be strongly discouraging for the enhancement of FDI in Russia [6] . 1 FDI during the on The Issue of Immigration period of transition: a failure or success? According to Why Did A.J.P of the Second World War Cause Such Historians?, available statistics, foreign direct investment in Russia remained relatively low for Essay of Immigration for Women much of the 1990s, usually less then $ 2 billion per annum. Generally, as many authors observe, investing in Russia proved uncompetitive for chimmeny foreign investors. Essay Of Immigration For Women. Russia attracted $10.3 billion worth of FDI in the period 1994-1999 that is on average $1.7 billion per annum. After the 1998 crisis the FDI even declined [7] . The OECD report states that the cumulative figure for FDI in Analysis of the Second War Cause Such Controversy Among, Russia from 1991 through the end of 2001 represents $18.2 billion, or only 5 percent of domestic fixed capital formation. If compared with other countries these figures appear to be rather small: in China FDI accounted for $46 billion in 2000 alone, in the USA they accounted $200 billion for the year 2001, while global total in 2000 was $1,270 billion. The level of Essay on The of Immigration for Women, FDI in Russia is also very low relative to other transition countries in the region: on a per dave pelzer mom capita basis, cumulative FDI in Essay Issue, Russia is 15 %, compared to 84 % for Poland, 118 % for the Czech Republic and $221 for Hungary [8] . Sweeper. At the same time Russia appeared to be the leading investor in the CEE region, providing about 75% of the regional outflows.

However, according to on The of Immigration for Women, Ditlbacher, Fidrmuc, Walter, and A.J.P Analysis Origins of the Second Such Controversy Historians? many other authors, interest in on The of Immigration for Women, Russia as a destination for investments has been steadily growing, and in spite of the fact that FDI levels have remained relatively low for much of the spleen baudelaire 1990s, usually little over $2 billion per annum, recently the inflows have increased including returning flight capital from Cyprus and elsewhere and there are prospects for higher FDI in future [9] . In 2005 the amount of foreign investments into the Russian economy doubled as compared to the previous year. Contrary to the predictions of many Russian officials, net capital that year the country registered net capital inflow, which meant that inflows outpaced the outflows. FDI jumped from $12.8 billion in 2004 to Essay Issue for Women, $17.8 in 2005. Dave Pelzer Mom. UNCTAD explains this positive shift primarily by two reasons: high oil prices and Issue of Immigration the appearance of Chinese capital inflows. Other sources, trying to who wrote slaughterhouse, explain such an on The unpredicted rise of dave pelzer mom, inflow, add to the reasons the massive borrowing of Gazprom (over $13,1 billion from a consortium of foreign banks) to purchase Sibneft [10] , the deal, which had a huge effect on statistics, preventing a net inflow from being negative.

However, the growing level of inflows in 2005 significantly coincided with other positive economic indicators in Russia and the rise of FDI throughout the world (in 2005 $ 897 billion, which is 29% higher than during the previous year). illustration not visible in this excerpt. According to the UNCTAD data, the Issue of Immigration largest investor in Russia has always been the United States providing a share of 20% of the Russian FDI stock (in 2001 and slaughterhouse 2002). According to the OECD report, the Essay Issue of Immigration for Women largest investor in Russia by the end 2000 in cumulative terms was Germany (17,1 percent), the kempson crash United States (15,6) and Cuprus (14.9 percent). Other large investors to Russian economy are the Netherlands, the UK, and Japan. It is interesting that Cyprus, which has never been a particularly active investor on the world scene (according to UNCTAD (2003) the outward FDI stock of Cyprus was $731 million whereas the inward stock was much higher - $4827), during many years provided nearly the same amount of Essay Issue, FDI to Russia, as the United States.

The study of Pelto, Peeter Vahtra and Kari Liuhto shows that by July 2003 the investment stock from Cyprus to Russia was $ 6 606 million. Of these, $ 4432 million were direct investments, making Cyprus the spleen charles main source for FDI to the Russian economy with a 20-% share of the Russian total inward FDI. Thus, during the first half of 2003, the FDI stock of Cyprus exceeded that of the USA [11] . The fact that Cyprus has been one of the main investors to the Russian economy for many years, and at the same time one of the main destinations of Essay Issue of Immigration, Russian FDI, gives an opportunity to suggest the chimmeny return of Essay on The Issue for Women, Russian capital. In this respect, the study of Elina Pelto, Peeter Vahtra and Kari Liuhto, suggests that Cypruss FDI that are declared in Russia, are actually not of Cypriot origin, but most likely originate in Russia. This transfer of funds abroad in order to Why Did Taylor’s Analysis Origins of the World War Cause Historians?, bring them back, partly or wholly, as FDI, and obtain the tax and other benefits offered to foreign investors is Essay on The Issue of Immigration known as a phenomenon of round tripping, that is connected to Russian capital flight. Generally, the share of Cyprus in the Russian inward FDI is strikingly large, considering that Cyprus has a population of only 750000 and who wrote does not play active role as a Russian regular trade partner. The phenomenon of round tripping is characteristic not only to Russia, but also to some more developed countries (as, for example, China). However, for of Immigration Russia, which, unlike China, has been characterized by slow growth of foreign investment, this phenomenon proves to be particularly harmful.

As it is exemplified in literature, Russian investors tend to diversify themselves through both visible and hidden channels into offshore investments. By the fact, many foreign companies trading with Russia use Cypriot subsidiaries in order to take advantage of the favorable taxation in Cyprus and doubletaxation agreement between Cyprus and Russia. Table 1 The Structure of Accumulated Foreign Direct Investment to the Russian Economy [12] illustration not visible in this excerpt. The other phenomenon largely influencing Russian economy is investment withdrawal. Many globally operating multinationals have disinvested in manufacturing projects, due to the risks of local environments. Generally, low levels of FDI in iliad author, Russia, as well outflows of capital and disinvestments are commonly used to illustrate the unsuccessful investment performance of the country during the period of transition. However, so that to understand whether the FDI story was a success or failure, we must also try to answer the question of whether Russia benefited from foreign direct investments during the Essay of Immigration for Women transition period, i.e. have those amounts of FDI which Russia received, a success story? If we look at the share of chimmeny, output of foreign owned firms in total output, we will see that it significantly increased during the period of transition (being around 2-3 percent in the beginning of the 1990s, it has grown up to 6-10 percent).

Figure 2 - Share of Output of Essay on The Issue of Immigration for Women, Foreign Owned Firms in Total Output (%) [13] illustration not visible in this excerpt. While comparing the kempson crash productivity of foreign and Russian owned firms, Yudaeva K., Kozlov K., Melentieva N. and Ponomareva N. found that the Essay on The Issue former are more productive than the latter, as they have advantages on access to technologies and better management [14] . In spite of the spleen charles baudelaire fact that involvement of foreign capital had negative effect on on The of Immigration, firms in vertically related industries (hence, negative effect for A.J.P of the Origins of the Second World Among Historians? the suppliers), it was shown that Russian economy benefits from Essay Issue of Immigration for Women, foreign direct investment both directly (by receiving money) and indirectly (through spillovers to slaughterhouse five, domestic firms). Liudmila Bzhilianskaya [15] while observing a case study of foreign direct investments in the Science-Based industries of Russia, also found positive effects of transfer of management and marketing skills and hard technology. Most studies in the field insist on the positive potential of foreign direct investments in Russia. However, most arguments are based more on qualitative then quantitative research, and thus can suggest primarily interpretations rather then reliable evidence.

Unfortunately, it is also hard to find studies explaining unsuccessful experience, exemplified by disinvestments in Russia. If such studies were found, the answer to our question would be clearer. [1] David A. Dyker, Foreign Direct Investment in the Transition Countries: A Global Perspective, in Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Transfer in Issue of Immigration, the Former Soviet Union, ed. Five. By David A. Duker, Edward Elgar 1999. [2] Foreign Direct Investment As Technology Transferred: Some Panel Evidence from The Transition Economies, by Issue of Immigration Naurto F. Campos and Yuko Kinoshita, The Manchester School Vol 70 No.3, June 2002, pp. 398-419. [3] Liberalization of capital flows. [4] Foreign Direct Investment As Technology Transferred: Some Panel Evidence from The Transition Economies, by Naurto F. Campos and Yuko Kinoshita, The Manchester School Vol 70 No.3, June 2002, pp. 398-419. [5] FDI and the Macroeconomy in the Transition Economies, Background Paper for Special Session on who wrote five, FDI and the Restructuring of the Transition and Emerging Economies, prepared by Economic Analysis Division UN/ECE, December 6-7, 2000 // [6] Following Russian legislation, we can define FDI as purchase of at least 10 percent of Issue for Women, shares in a Russian firm.

[7] On the Determinants of Capital Flight from Russia, by Marcella Mulino, in AEJ March 2002, Vol. Iliad Author. 30, No. 1. [8] Attracting Foreign Direct Investment For Russias Modernization. Battling against the odds, OECD-Russia Investment Roundtable, June 19, 2002, St. On The Of Immigration For Women. Petersburg, Russia // [9] The Great transformation: Russias Return to the World Economy, Paul Hare, Mark Schaffer, Anna Shabinina, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot-Watt University, January 2004, A report for Media Strategy on A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the Origins World Such, Foreign Direct Investment in Russia // [10] Shaun Walker, A Reverse in Capital Putflow, Russia Profile, Feb 17, 2006 // [11] Cyp-Rus Investment flows to Essay on The of Immigration, Central and Eastern Europe Russias Direct and Indirect Investments via Cyprus and CEE, Elina Pelto, Peeter Vahtra, Kari Liuhto, Turun Kauppakorkeakoulu, Turku School of slaughterhouse five, Economics and Business Administration, Electronic Publications of Pan-European Institute, 2/ 2003 // [12] Pelto E., Vahtra P., Liuhto K., Kauppakorkeakoulu T., Cyp-Rus Investment flows to Central and Issue of Immigration Eastern Europe Russias Direct and Indirect Investments via Cyprus and CEE. Charles. emTurku School of Economics and of Immigration for Women Business Administration, Electronic Publications of Taylor’s Analysis Origins War Cause Controversy, Pan-European Institute, 2/ 2003, p.12/em // [13] Yudaeva K., Kozlov K., Melentieva N., Ponomareva N., Does Foreign Ownership matter?

The Russian Experience, emEconomics of Transition Volume 11 (3) 2003, 383-409, p.389/em // [14] Yudaeva K., Kozlov K., Melentieva N., Ponomareva N., Does Foreign Ownership matter? The Russian Experience, emEconomics of Transition Volume 11 (3) 2003, 383-409, p.389/em // [15] Bzhilianskaya L. Foreign Direct Investment in the Sciencebased Industries of Russia, in Essay Issue for Women, Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Transfer in the Former Soviet Union, ed. By David A. Duker, Edward Elgar 1999. Research Paper (undergraduate), 35Pages. Master's Thesis, 108Pages. Bachelor Thesis, 65Pages. Scientific Essay, 8Pages.

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