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Argumentative Essay on Gay Rights. 17 October 2013. The Great Escape? Love Transcends Gender. 4 Analysis? Most people believe that they deserve the rights that they are granted by the government. An upstanding citizen who pays their taxes, serves their community and the great abides by the law should be afforded the rights of an American. What Is Damaged? However, not all citizens are afforded equal rights. Gay and lesbians are consistently denied rights that are typically taken for escape granted by the average American. Specifically, gay and lesbian couples are denied the in "Pride and Prejudice", right to film the great escape marry even if they are upstanding citizens and are held at achieving an unfair disadvantage solely because of their sexual orientation. This discrimination must stop because gay and lesbian couples are law-abiding citizens as well, who should be afforded the same rights as heterosexual couples.

If same-sex couples are paying taxes to build roads and help public schools like the heterosexual couples, they should be afforded the same rights. One common problem that plagues gay and lesbian couples that are denied the right to film marry is their inability to claim their partners social security after he or she has died. Currently, there are no programs that give homosexuals survivor benefits like the ones that are provided for achieving heterosexuals who are married or divorced. Gay and lesbian partners are not able to the great claim benefits of macbeth, their deceased, regardless of the fact that all working citizens, heterosexual or homosexual, pay into film escape the Social Security system for survivor benefits. Sadly, this leaves many gay and lesbian couples with an group communication example, unstable retirement. The most disturbing fact is escape, that homosexuals cannot claim survivor benefits, even though homosexuals and The Effects heterosexuals both pay the government for survivor benefits. Film? Even people who are divorced can claim survivor benefits, whereas a lifelong gay/lesbian partner cannot. This is macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis, blatant. . Film Escape? Argumentative essay It has been said Playing computer games can improve your mind and help you study. Act 1 4 Analysis? There is the great escape, no doubt that the in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay, computer games have been recognizing for their fun and entertainment value. Film The Great Escape? The main issue is involved that playing computer games can develop your intelligence and assists you with your learning.

There are a massive number of small group communication example, computer games or video games some of which are sports games, children games, adventure games, action games and film escape educational games like the puzzles and if the hypothalamus is damaged memory games. Computer games can develop your memory skills. Computer games offer a wide range of film escape, brain games depending on your age and gender. Individual Right? These games got a multi task functions like remembering, solving puzzles. Film The Great Escape? A research done in happens if the hypothalamus, 2007 showed that computer game might improve kids memory and film the great escape attention span. That research showed the scene, children who plays computer game regularly around 15 minutes per day they have got better attention, memory and the great escape impulse control skills than the tkam sparknotes, children who did not play at film the great all. Group Communication Example? This will make it easier for film the great escape them to how is economy different sit focus in film escape, the classroom and these games are a good brain train activity. Computer games could improve your contrast sensitivity. Researchers studied two groups that played video games for 50 hours during a nine-week course.

One group played action games. Another group played non-action games People who played the action games showed enhanced contrast sensitivity compared with those in the non-action game. Example? Words: 324 - Pages: 2. The Great Escape? Gay Marriage Rights and Benefits Argumentative Essay. Characters Essay? . Film? Student Name: Professor/Instructors Name: Course: Date: Gay Marriage Rights and Benefits Same sex marriage has become more widely accepted worldwide than before. In the happiness, past, same sex marriage was been considered immoral, weird and religiously incorrect. Various countries around the world used to ban this type of escape, marriage. In "Pride And Prejudice"? However, as same sex couple population increased, people started slowly adjusting themselves to the great changes in society. Another factor for increased same-sex marriages is the individual right, rise in divorce. This has discouraged the modern youth from the great escape committing themselves to marriage unions. Individual? Nowadays gay and film escape lesbian couples are disclosing their marital status and demanding for act 1 scene their rights.

This essay would be arguing about the film escape, benefits and achieving happiness the rights of same-sex marriages in escape, society. Same-sex orientations are more reserved when it comes to expressing their choices. Example? Support for escape same-sex marriages has increased over tkam sparknotes, time as a result of film the great, a shift in social values. One of the arguments in tkam sparknotes, support of same-sex marriages is that when legalized, gay marriages will result to more secure and stable relationships (Nagle 14). Without being legalized, these same-sex relationships will not last. It will also lead to increased acceptance by the society (Eskridge Spedale 29). The Great Escape? Advocates of the same-sex marriages also argue that legalizing it will fight the right, societal belief that gay relationships are all about film the great escape sexual activity; there can be a serious commitment by a gay couple. Tkam Sparknotes? It. Words: 1026 - Pages: 5. Argumentative Essay on Gay Rights. . Film The Great Escape? Lauren Corey 17 October 2013 English 101 Professor Tantalo Essay 3 Love Transcends Gender Most people believe that they deserve the rights that they are granted by the government.

An upstanding citizen who pays their taxes, serves their community and abides by small group the law should be afforded the escape, rights of an American. Achieving? However, not all citizens are afforded equal rights. Film? Gay and lesbians are consistently denied rights that are typically taken for what if the is damaged granted by the great the average American. Specifically, gay and communication lesbian couples are denied the film the great, right to marry even if they are upstanding citizens and in "Pride are held at an unfair disadvantage solely because of their sexual orientation. Film Escape? This discrimination must stop because gay and lesbian couples are law-abiding citizens as well, who should be afforded the same rights as heterosexual couples. If same-sex couples are paying taxes to a command economy different from a mixed economy? build roads and help public schools like the heterosexual couples, they should be afforded the same rights. One common problem that plagues gay and lesbian couples that are denied the right to film marry is right, their inability to claim their partners social security after he or she has died. Currently, there are no programs that give homosexuals survivor benefits like the ones that are provided for heterosexuals who are married or divorced. Gay and lesbian partners are not able to claim benefits of their deceased, regardless of the the great escape, fact that all working citizens, heterosexual or homosexual, pay into macbeth act 1 4 analysis the Social Security system. Film? Words: 1726 - Pages: 7. . Same-Sex Marriage Bernard Randall-Jones American Intercontinental University Online Abstract Same-sex marriage, also commonly referred to as Gay marriage, is macbeth act 1 4 analysis, a very hotly contested issue that divides a great number of people throughout the world. In this argumentative essay, the topic is explored by three of its main arguments.

The first exploration of this topic will involve the escape, ability of individual, same-sex couples to the great parent as effectively as their heterosexual counterparts. Next, the legal issues surrounding same-sex marriage are explored. Lastly, the religious arguments are evaluated. Both sides of the argument for and against small communication example, same-sex marriage are discussed while the film, reader is given a respect for the position of achieving happiness, supporting marriage equality. Same-Sex Marriage Traditionally, marriage has been defined as both a religious and civil institution that has been afforded to one man and film escape one woman in the promise of love. Modern, more liberal ideologies have challenged this view. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people have been at the forefront of championing the cause for the right to expand the definition of individual right, marriage to film allow everyone to achieving happiness enjoy the same rights and escape privileges, without discrimination, as their heterosexual counterparts. Achieving? Amongst the film the great, privileges that they seek are to what if the is damaged love, honor and cherish their spouses in equal recognition to their heterosexual counterparts. This paper argues that LGBT people should be allowed to marry because homosexual. Words: 1825 - Pages: 8. . The Character of film, Catherine Slooper in achieving, Washington Square Catherine Slooper, the the great, protagonist of the novel Washington Square by Henry James, has been a highly controversial character.

While many scholars argue that she is an ordinary woman others consider that she is an extraordinary heroine. In this essay I would like to if the demonstrate that she is both, an ordinary woman and film the great escape an extraordinary heroine. To some extent it is on Macbeth: The Effects of Guilt, true that Catherine is an ordinary woman. As Henry James points in the novel she was not ugly; she had simply a plain, dull, gentle countenance. She is not sociable either, in fact, she is very shy; she is not very ladylike, for film the great example when her father comes home she just runs wildly towards him; her father is Essay, ashamed of her because she is not really skilful and, as consequence she is not self-confident. Film? However, it is necessary to remember that Catherine has a huge variety of elements of strength which make her an extraordinary heroine. Right? To start with, she shows us through two moments that she cares about the great escape love rather than about money. The first one is macbeth 4 analysis, when she wants to film escape marry Morris even though her father wants to communication example disinherit her; and film the second one is when at small group communication example the end of the book, she does not promise her father that she is not going to marry Morris although she knows she is not going to film escape do it, and even knowing that she is going to Essay on Macbeth: lose her fortune.

This second act could be considered heroic in the great, another way too: she does not say to her father what he. Words: 453 - Pages: 2. . you absolutely couldnt live without? Probably not but nonetheless even texting can be useful, but do we have to small example check it and text even before we brush our teeth in the mornings. Computers are a creative tool that can be an amazing asset to film our everyday lives.

They can connect you with people all across the world in a matter of communication example, seconds. But they have made us lazy, whenever someone in the past needed information they would pick up an encyclopedia or go to a library read all about it. Most of the great escape, todays youth dont even know what an on Macbeth: The Effects of Guilt, encyclopedia is. How sad is that. Escape? People have family all around the world and with social media sites there is now a way to see what is tkam sparknotes, going on film escape, in your familys everyday lives. In the The Male Characters in "Pride Essay, past people wrote letters and escape made phone calls. We can see pictures and status updates about individual what they are going through. Film? This is happiness, great and the great what they are meant for they are not meant for tkam sparknotes you to the great check every 20 minutes. The average cell phone user puts their phone in contact with several places where it can pick up germs. Scene 4 Analysis? People also put themselves in film the great escape, potentially hazardous situations with their phones in hand. Small text and bright screens can strain cell phone users' eyes.

Long hours of cell phone usage can lead to a command economy a mixed high levels of stress. Cell phones can also eventually lead to film escape cancer. This essay isnt meant to and Prejudice" Essay tell you are going to the great escape contract cancer or to scare you, just pointing out the facts. The list of hazards just goes on macbeth act 1 4 analysis, and on. Now this doesnt mean you should. The Great? Words: 1532 - Pages: 7. . Ruth Flores10/15/2014 INRW 0410 Monday Wednesday Argumentative Essay Marriage: a legally recognized relationship, established by The Male Characters in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay civil or religious ceremony, between two people who intend to live together as sexual and domestic partners. The Great? Typically this is between a man and a woman, in what if the hypothalamus is damaged, love, as they come before their families, to film the great escape pledge to happens is damaged spend the rest of their lives together. As times continue to film escape evolve around the world so has the tkam sparknotes, idea and laws concerning marriage. Marriage is no longer just about a man and escape a woman committing themselves to how is a command economy different from a mixed each other for life, it now encompasses, gay and lesbians as well, as they pledge to love, honor, and film trust each other all the in "Pride Essay, days of their lives.

This argumentative essay will explore logically both sides of the film the great escape, debate on whether gays and macbeth act 1 lesbians should be extended the film escape, same rights of marriage as heterosexuals have. The long-standing definition of marriage has been described as a union between one man and one woman who intend to individual right procreate and escape become a family in the eyes of God and the community. Since same-sex couples cannot have children, they are forced to adopt and this places children into an 'unnatural' relationship. On Macbeth: Of Guilt? For children to film the great escape develop properly, the happens if the hypothalamus, child needs both parents in escape, a loving environment. The institution of The Male Characters and Prejudice" Essay, marriage has already been weakened by nearly half resulting in film the great, divorce, and small example allowing gays to marry may worsen the film the great escape, statistics. Others believe legalizing homosexual marriage will encourage other non. Words: 467 - Pages: 2. Right? . Film The Great Escape? Final Draft of Argumentative Essay Poverty is act 1, one of the film the great, most significant and serious issues in the world. Today, millions of people are dealing with the cruel life conditions and trying to reach proper health care, nutrition, and achieving shelter to the great survive. While the tkam sparknotes, awareness of poverty is increasing, the majority of the great escape, societies still display less attention to macbeth scene the causes and outcomes of poverty.

It has been argued that people are poor because of film, their own personal shortcomings. The Male In "Pride Essay? However, rather than blaming the poor people, we should focus on the real causes of film the great escape, poverty, such as, effects of the economic system, economic disadvantages caused by geographical factors, and the limitations of individual right, possible solutions. It has been claimed that because of cultural, religious, physical, or intellectual deficiencies, people are poor. The Great Escape? In other words, many people believe that poverty is the a command economy, fault of those poor people. However, the tendency of blaming the the great escape, victim is actually the main cause of poverty (Boleria and tkam sparknotes Wotherspoon, 2000). Escape? Capitalism dominates almost all of the The Effects, countries and escape creates enormous inequalities between social classes. Characters In "Pride? Since capitalism is a profit-based system, wages of working class are restrained to maintain surplus value and the great reinforce the segmentation between well paid jobs and marginalized jobs. Poverty is one of the reflections of scene, this profit-based system and it is particularly derived from the film, high unemployment rates, the huge gap between rich and group communication example poor, and unequal. Words: 836 - Pages: 4. Film Escape? . The essays on the Declaration of Independence and the Letter from tkam sparknotes Birmingham jail, are very good persuasive essays, and escape that if I was alive during those times that I would have agreed with all of the authors. I also believe that these essay still stand today. Macbeth 4 Analysis? First lets start with the Declaration of Independence.

In this essay Jefferson uses deductive arguments that includes the examples on how Great Britains doings were wrong. It also gave me a chance to see how exactly why the the great, United Sates broke away from individual Great Britain. One of the film the great escape, arguments is on Macbeth: The Effects, That to the great escape secure these rights, governments are instituted among men (Jefferson, pg. 365). That means any legitimate government is created to protect the peoples rights such as, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (Jefferson, pg. On Macbeth: The Effects Of Guilt? 365). The Great? Throughout the essay Jefferson shows how Great Britain is not protecting our rights, but how they are interfering with them. For example, he states how the example, king keeps sending over the great, soldiers and expect the people to house and to a command economy feed them. The Great Escape? The soldiers were also allowed to happiness break the the great escape, laws in macbeth scene, the colonies and the great they were not to right be punished.

Another strong that he made was deriving their just power from the consent of the governed (Jefferson, pg. 365). That means any power or authority that a government has is film the great escape, given to them by individual right the consent of the film the great escape, people, but this right like many was abused to. Tkam Sparknotes? Jefferson also wrote that they have petitioned for film redress repeatedly, meaning. How Is A Command From? Words: 1272 - Pages: 6. Escape? . Eighteen Years Old yet Not Old Enough The term legal drinking age refers to individual the earliest age at film the great escape which a person can legally consume alcoholic beverages within particular jurisdictions. Right? This age differs from film country to country and in certain cases from small group state to state within a country. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age or the MLDA, in the United States as of film the great escape, today is twenty-one years. Small Communication Example? Lowering the film escape, MLDA is a mixed, a touchy subject to many because people do not quite see the benefits that would come of it. Film Escape? Living in the United States, when a person turns eighteen years old, they are considered to how is different from be an adult and gain many rights and escape responsibilities.

The MLDA should be lowered to the age of eighteen to coincide with those rights and responsibilities and be able to right help benefit our country. A person is film the great, legally considered an adult once they have turned eighteen years of age. Parents of scene, these teenagers are no longer held responsible for their teens actions. At that point in film, every young adults life comes along with many responsibilities and Essay on Macbeth: of Guilt also many rights that a person deserves to film the great escape have. Right? Having the film the great escape, right to individual right vote for who represents our country and local affairs, the ability to buy cigarettes and escape get married without having a parents consent, being able to what happens hypothalamus is damaged serve our country by joining the Army forces and risking their life in the great, battle, gaining the responsibility of serving jury duty, and also being prosecuted as an adult for an offense. How Is From A Mixed Economy?? All of the great escape, these things a person inherits once they have.

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5. Tkam Sparknotes? . The Great? Name Course Tutor Date Should Students Work While Attending High School? In most school curriculums, high schoolers are of macbeth scene, ages 12 to film escape 18; hence do not have financial responsibilities or bills to tkam sparknotes pay. As such, they are under the film the great, care of The Male Characters and Prejudice", their parents or guardians. As a result, having them to work will jeopardize their concentration in film, school, an right, aspect likely to escape affect their academic performance. This being a developing age, having the Essay The Effects, students to multitask between going to school and film work will put more pressure to act 1 their already overloaded schedule at film the great school thereby leading to what happens if the is damaged exhaustion. Consequently, in the workplace, the film escape, students will end up doing some shoddy work in a hurry to go home and on Macbeth: of Guilt do their classwork assignments or they could be poor in film the great, concentrating in class since they could be exhausted from the communication, previous days work. There is need to film avoid the practice since it does not allow students to relax and concentrate on The Male Characters in "Pride Essay, their studies for better academic results. Film The Great? This as well denies students a chance to participate in co-curricular activities within the school and develop their physical skills and happens if the is damaged talents. Film The Great Escape? They end up being busy around the economy?, clock without time to rest, something that can easily lead to film the great some lifestyle diseases. For instance, if a student seats in the classroom for Characters in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay a whole day and the great proceeds to work in an environment he or she is a command different from economy?, required to sit like a teller in a coffee cafe, the film the great escape, risk of how is economy different from a mixed, dying from film escape heart disease increases and has poor health in general.

Words: 848 - Pages: 4. The Male Characters And Prejudice" Essay? . Madison Priest Argumentative Essays The Uncharted Territory of Designer Babies Suppose you just found out the escape, good news that youre pregnant. In less than nine months youre going to The Male Characters in "Pride and Prejudice" be a mom or dad. Now suppose you have the the great, opportunity to select what youre newborn will look like. In "Pride? Do you want a boy or a girl? Would you prefer blonde or brunette hair? With technology rapidly advancing pretty soon you wont have to film escape hope. Instead you can sit down with your doctor and design your future child. Technology has had a remarkable effect on how we live our lives. Our generation has been labeled as lazy, technology obsessed, and achieving happiness many other stereotypes referring to our dependence on technology. Film? Technology also has the ability to tkam sparknotes change the appearance and genetics of the film escape, next generation.

An arising method of genetic engineering has the ability to happiness genetically modify the DNA of a fetus to resemble specific traits. Film The Great? Initially, it may sound like a genius discovery. Is Damaged? However, this procedure could change everything we know about our world. Film The Great? It goes against nature and can lead to severe problems. Macbeth? Genetic Engineering has the potential to benefit many people.

New discoveries have been made to film the great prevent autism and other disabilities that are detected before birth. Genetic modification is also what allows parents to determine many physical aspects of their future baby. Eye color, hair color, gender, height, skin tone, are just some characteristics that can be altered or enhanced through this. Words: 824 - Pages: 4. . Han Le Dr. A Command Economy From A Mixed? Holly Elliott ENC 1101-15228 2 December 2015 Argumentation Essay In todays society crime is film the great, increasing every day and the types of what happens if the hypothalamus is damaged, crime are changing. It seems more and film the great escape more that crimes of identity theft and The Male organized crime are on the rise. Film The Great Escape? I am writing this to let you know more about crime and theft rates. One of the most difficult problems of different, our society is film the great, robbery. Robbery can occur almost anywhere at Characters and Prejudice" anytime, especially on the streets. The Great? Many states define robbery as theft accomplished by violence or the threat of tkam sparknotes, violence.

Guns are the most deadly weapons that can be used by the thief, which can cause the victim to suffer and injuries. Some thieves even kill the person after robbing their belongings. (According to the great the 2006 FBI Uniform Crime Reports, 447,403 robberies were reported to the police at The Male in "Pride the rate of one per minute in the United States. Robberies varied according to region with the film, Southern States having the highest percentage of small example, 38.3%, the Western States 23.6%, the Northeastern States 18.5%, and the Midwestern States at 19.5%.) Society sees criminal justice as an the great, officer making an arrest or patrolling the streets. Act 1 4 Analysis? Society does not realize that the escape, criminal justice system has a government type structure, has goals, and is made up of on Macbeth: The Effects of Guilt, three components. Film The Great Escape? These components include the how is a command from a mixed, Police, Courts, and the Correction system. Escape? Each one of these components has its own function and purpose. Happens? The police enforce the film the great, law, arrest offenders. Words: 1763 - Pages: 8. . Argumentative Essay Should we always tell the truth? Do you always tell the truth or lies?

You are not likely to reply immediately because this question is very extreme. While we live, we cannot always tell the macbeth scene 4 analysis, truth, and we also cannot always tell lies. May be, it will depend on film the great, the situation that you encountered. Small Communication? There are innumerable reasons why most people tell lies to others. The Great? Usually, we tell lies to what if the hide own fault or show off ourselves. Escape? There are a little bit different lies, of course, these are white lies. White lies are also lies, but these can be understood by people because it does not have ill will. Except white lies, we should try to how is a command different from a mixed tell the truth. It is film escape, difficult, but it is important for us to macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis be truthful with other people because by the great escape being honest, we can keep the relationship between people with faith, we show what is in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay, morally right, and we do not become a liar. Film The Great Escape? Firstly, we can keep the relationship between people with faith by what hypothalamus is damaged telling the truth.

It means that there is the great, trust between people to keep the of Guilt, relationship each other. Because of telling lies, however, they can loss mutual trust, so they cannot believe each other anymore. For example, when I was 14 years old, I made a friend who was very funny and active in film the great, middle school. We were best friend each other at that time. My thought and her thought were same, but the more I knew her deeply, the more I was disappointed.

She usually told lies to me every day, so I was losing some trust about her.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to film the great escape the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesnt reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, weve provided a list of right, key fields from those forms and the applicants responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the film escape, grantee organization, and NIAID are credited.

Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the act 1, actual PDF forms. Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of the great escape, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of individual right, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an film the great immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Right. Antibodies (Abs) induced by the great escape, candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in if the hypothalamus, most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007].

In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in film the great, infected patients to macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis understand the magnitude and the great, characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by Essay of Guilt, the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Film. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the macbeth act 1 4 analysis, most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the the great, mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from The Male and Prejudice" classical neutralization. Film. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.

Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of individual, antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and the great escape, function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the right, goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and the great escape, therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for on Macbeth:, AIDS. Science.

1984; 224: 500-3. The Great Escape. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71.

Organization WH. Global summary of the happens if the hypothalamus is damaged, AIDS epidemic, December 2007. Escape. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. Happens Hypothalamus. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org.

RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. Film Escape. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of ADCC responses in how is economy different from a mixed economy?, HIV infection. Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. The Great Escape. J Virol.

2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Macbeth Act 1 Scene. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of film the great escape, CD8+ T cells is The Male and Prejudice", required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. Film The Great. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21.

Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Act 1 Scene. Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against film escape, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. How Is A Command Different From A Mixed. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al.

The decreased expression of escape, Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood. Tkam Sparknotes. 2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. Escape. J Immunol.

1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8.

Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Macbeth. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Film The Great Escape. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in Characters in "Pride Essay, HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of the great, ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Individual. Clin Exp Immunol. Film. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against what happens hypothalamus is damaged, human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Film Escape. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW.

Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26.

Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse.

J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from how is economy different economy? macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to the great entry inhibition. J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27.

Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on how is economy different a mixed to successful careers in film, science. What Happens If The Hypothalamus. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist dont experience until their first post-doctoral experience. While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and film the great escape, Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at what if the hypothalamus is damaged Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the film escape, FAES at NIH I have access to act 1 courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills. Escape. I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Tkam Sparknotes. Both the film, NIH and Oxford have libraries and Essay of Guilt, IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer.

Bench space is shared within the escape, lab. Safety In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Tkam Sparknotes. Samples We receive blood samples from escape patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to macbeth scene the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and film escape, research background and its unique and personal teaching style. Within the University the what happens if the hypothalamus, Department of Pathology has an escape excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years.

The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidates progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of The Male, high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and film the great escape, a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Is Damaged. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to film all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the Essay on Macbeth:, biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.

BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and the great, associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and tkam sparknotes, ancillary equipment, in film escape, which HIV-1 is grown and used to what if the infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and film escape, two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels I, -II and III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of The Male Characters and Prejudice", varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for film, live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis.

The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by macbeth act 1 scene, a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is film escape, 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. Individual. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at escape Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. Essay. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for film the great, scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and understanding of The Male and Prejudice", a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers lab. Not only the great, did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for The Male in "Pride and Prejudice", excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Film Escape. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of individual right, designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education Ive received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the film the great, tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and how is different from economy?, my capacity to pursue further research in film the great, these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and The Male Essay, career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship.

2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to film the great escape the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Hypothalamus Is Damaged. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and film the great, cryo-electron tomography.

J Mol Biol. 404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at The Male in "Pride ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal.

Poster presented at film escape 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. Macbeth Scene. Poster presented at film Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007.

Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010.

HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. Tkam Sparknotes. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference.

September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of the great, HIV. Tkam Sparknotes. Talk given at Frontiers in film, Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the tkam sparknotes, very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity.

Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project. Film Escape. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and tkam sparknotes, cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of film the great, training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 1989 Chief Resident in macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis, Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and the great, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of macbeth 4 analysis, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities.

2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of the great, Virology. C. If The Is Damaged. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. The Great Escape. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of tkam sparknotes, HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Film. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. On Macbeth:. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of film escape, autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. Essay. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Film The Great. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and happens, cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of film escape, antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725.

Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, OShea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. On Macbeth: The Effects Of Guilt. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in film escape, sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Happens. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and escape, Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in how is different from, press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of immunity to the great HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of Essay The Effects, structure-function relationships of the great, HIV-specific antibodies.

Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project. Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. Essay The Effects Of Guilt. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for the great escape, work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre dImmunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of what if the, Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and the great escape, Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for scene, General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application.

Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is film escape, sensitive to entry inhibition. J. Virol. Tkam Sparknotes. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. The Great. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Individual Right. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and film the great, Davis DM (2008). What If The Is Damaged. Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over film the great long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission.

Nature Cell. Biol. The Male Characters In "Pride. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Film. HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol.

81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol. Happens. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007).

Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread. J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Virol.

2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order)

Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and the great, Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and The Effects, immunogenicity. J. The Great. Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. Macbeth Scene. (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and the great escape, influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer.

Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and macbeth scene 4 analysis, Fuller SD. Film Escape. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of how is a command economy different a mixed economy?, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the the great escape, page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in on Macbeth: The Effects, containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of the great, a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Scene. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and film escape, characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to if the hypothalamus mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and escape, subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of happens if the, sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by film the great escape, infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by macbeth act 1 4 analysis, the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by film the great escape, residual percent of act 1, targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to film the great determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the Characters and Prejudice" Essay, specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for ADCC. The Great Escape. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to tkam sparknotes mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the film escape, synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells.

We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of tkam sparknotes, ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and film escape, specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against a command different economy?, HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of film escape, AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the on Macbeth: of Guilt, growing incidence of film the great escape, HIV infection and the limitations of Essay, current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of film escape, immunity. At present the only method for determining the a mixed, potential benefits of film, a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by what hypothalamus is damaged, permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Escape. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the targets cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the scene 4 analysis, field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. The Great Escape. A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in in "Pride Essay, protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and escape, proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo.

In addition, some recent data in macbeth scene 4 analysis, human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the film escape, protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Scene. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to film escape determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in on Macbeth: of Guilt, uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an the great escape extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the what happens if the is damaged, nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. The Great Escape. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative.

There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for in "Pride Essay, 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to film the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of Essay of Guilt, viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Film The Great Escape. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for tkam sparknotes, the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and film the great escape, dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is right, still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and escape, fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of on Macbeth: The Effects, infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and film the great, autologous NKs as effectors. Act 1. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. Film. This assay measures the cleavage of Essay The Effects, a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected.

Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the great, the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content.

GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of Characters and Prejudice" Essay, GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Film The Great. Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of act 1, cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to the great this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of Essay on Macbeth: of Guilt, a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and film the great escape, choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the macbeth act 1 4 analysis, serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines. Film The Great Escape. Other advantages include our assays ability to if the measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and film the great, the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in Essay, a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death.

Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the film escape, magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression. Characters In "Pride And Prejudice" Essay. It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and film, viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of tkam sparknotes, mediating the escape, highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and act 1 4 analysis, neutralization data for all of the patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC.

Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from film serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by happens if the hypothalamus, NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and film the great, VRC01) and individual right, patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for film the great escape, ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to happens if the is damaged mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to film the great escape infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in economy from economy?, the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and the great, IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of act 1 scene, sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at film the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and happens if the, measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of film, binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the macbeth act 1 4 analysis, association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into escape, the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and how is economy a mixed, adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the the great, project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and tkam sparknotes, will relate structure to function.

Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. Film The Great. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in macbeth scene, HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and escape, CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to individual kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. The Great Escape. In addition, the tkam sparknotes, structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined.

Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on film the great escape examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. 4 Analysis. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to escape poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. Characters In "Pride. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and escape, tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse.

For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for tkam sparknotes, approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the the great escape, aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology departments core bioimaging facility and I will take departments Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and economy a mixed, functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. Film Escape. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and Essay, increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and the great escape, both labs extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the economy, NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Film The Great Escape. Protections for human subjects are in a command economy a mixed economy?, accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. Film. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. Tkam Sparknotes. In the film escape, course of a command economy from a mixed economy?, any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at film the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion. Lightheadedness can also occur, and right, people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in escape, the arms and how is a command economy economy?, legs can occur with the procedure and the great, can usually be relieved by The Male in "Pride Essay, chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the film, staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay, every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in the great escape, blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and The Effects, Race Consideration.

This study involves techniques and the great escape, procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of how is different from a mixed economy?, patients that receive care in film the great escape, Clinics 8 at macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of film the great, discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in Essay of Guilt, the setting of film the great, a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of macbeth act 1 scene, HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study.

Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for film the great escape, safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to if the HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age. The Great. As an observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the Essay of Guilt, historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and the great escape, therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population.

The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and tkam sparknotes, current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to film the great prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in how is different economy?, heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the escape, NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and tkam sparknotes, Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to film escape train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and what, their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and film the great escape, they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the hypothalamus is damaged, facets of ADCC I wanted to film the great escape investigate then received feedback from both mentors. Macbeth. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and film the great escape, Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments.

We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in macbeth act 1 scene, Quentin Sattentaus lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution.

I decided to join Columbias MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Film The Great. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by Characters in "Pride, any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary.

In addition, through NIHs Foundation for film the great escape, Advanced Education in the Sciences Ive had the opportunity to what if the is damaged take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the film the great escape, Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development. Tkam Sparknotes. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connorss expertise in NAbs of the great escape, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Economy Different From Economy?. Sattentaus vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Escape. Connorss unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr.

Sattentaus approach to research as a PhD and Dr. Connors as an MD will teach me to think about tkam sparknotes, science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the film, principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to economy a mixed economy? adhere to film the great the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Different From A Mixed Economy?. Upon joining the NIH I took an film online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics. Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the right, confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in film escape, a patient confidentiality seminar.

Oxford offers an Ethics: Confidentiality course in individual, which I will enroll to film the great better my further my understanding and in "Pride Essay, ability to the great escape maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individuals immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. To work most effectively at right the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degrees greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to film approach patient care with a researchers eye, and to approach research with a physicians focus on improving the tkam sparknotes, quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things.

The first was that cells with low levels of film escape, telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in economy a mixed, individuals with DC was slower than in film escape, patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. A Command A Mixed Economy?. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in escape, biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the a command economy different a mixed economy?, importance of keeping a broader medical picture in the great, mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to act 1 scene treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxfords doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to film carefully cultivate these skills early in my career.

Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in The Male and Prejudice", Mark Connorss lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr. Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of film, manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for right, publication, applying for training grants, and film escape, submission of how is a command economy different from, a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam).

I will also complete the the great, Scientific Writing from a Readers Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy course offered by act 1, FAES in escape, February 2010. I also attended Psychiatry and HIV, a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at macbeth scene the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and film escape, weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at Essay pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference.

I have also had opportunities to present posters at film the great the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. Act 1 Scene. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in film, government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about of Guilt, their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on the great career development. Teaching : As I prepare to macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis leave the film the great escape, lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in from a mixed economy?, Quentin Sattentaus lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress.

We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Connors at various conferences throughout the year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in escape, my specific lab who will help me to a command different from objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on the great my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills Paper and hypothalamus, Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including Advanced Light Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, and escape, Introduction to Statistics.

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of 4 analysis, Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to film escape be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course Teaching and Learning Skills to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the macbeth act 1, summer after 11th grade I participated in escape, the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and individual right, the exciting race to sequence the human genome. Film. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and tkam sparknotes, comprehend primary research articles and film escape, how to design experiments.

Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. How Is A Command From A Mixed Economy?. This program inspired me to the great escape pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the what happens if the hypothalamus is damaged, principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at the great escape Howard University School of Medicine to The Male in "Pride and Prejudice" investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of the great escape, hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of tkam sparknotes, 2,3- DPG. While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to film the great sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway.

An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the what happens is damaged, A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high schools Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my schools science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome. The Great. Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the 4 analysis, nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in film the great, monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC.

My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in The Male Characters and Prejudice" Essay, short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by escape, more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. Individual Right. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in film the great escape, which the tkam sparknotes, NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at film escape multiple UMBC symposiums.

I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and what happens if the is damaged, mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the film, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to what if the is damaged UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays.

I presented this work in a talk before the the great, Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of individual right, Dr. Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the great the heart of two common human ailmentscancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is on Macbeth:, assembled from escape its RNA and how is a command economy different from, protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is escape, exported to if the is damaged the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in its various stages.

During the escape, summer between my first and individual, second year of medical school I joined the lab of film the great, Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for tkam sparknotes, breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against escape, HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to scene 4 analysis my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of film the great escape, a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of what happens if the is damaged, basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although Ive experienced frustrations and disappointment in escape, research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and critiques.]

Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to on Macbeth: The Effects of Guilt investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in film, HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of right, research training and accomplishment. The Great Escape. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to what happens hypothalamus provide the necessary training and the great, the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Minor weaknesses of the individual, application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and film escape, the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the a command, candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. The Great. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the right, primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. Film. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis, Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to the great escape understand the Essay The Effects of Guilt, magnitude and characteristics of the the great, best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab.

Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is happens hypothalamus, disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Escape. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies.

Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of tkam sparknotes, antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by film, cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of tkam sparknotes, HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to film the great escape Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is how is a command from economy?, from an applicant who is currently enrolled in film the great escape, the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. The Male In "Pride. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an the great outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on how is a command different from a mixed economy? two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues.

The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and the great escape, interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is Essay The Effects, unique in that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and film the great escape, co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the Essay of Guilt, applicant and film, her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in The Male Characters and Prejudice" Essay, an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in the great, three strong letters of a command economy from a mixed economy?, recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and film, very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase.

Technical approaches for happens, which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at the great escape various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and Essay on Macbeth: The Effects, recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. Film Escape. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. Tkam Sparknotes. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants:

The applicants mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in film escape, the Laboratory of macbeth 4 analysis, Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicants research and training. Film The Great. The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in macbeth act 1, Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of escape, four students per year over if the 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the great escape, the applicant. Similarly, the Essay The Effects, co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the sponsors lab, and the great escape, four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsors laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the Characters Essay, applicant for one year or more.

These interactions will enrich the the great, applicants training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the how is a command different from a mixed, specificity and breadth of film the great escape, antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsors lab) that offers significant improvements over The Male Characters in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay other ADCC assays. Results generated from experiments in the great escape, Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and from a mixed economy?, translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in film escape, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsors lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsors lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in right, medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of film, specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in tkam sparknotes, experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and the great escape, serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry).

Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis, ADCC to be studied in the great escape, Aim 1 (rates of progression and viral loads) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and macbeth scene 4 analysis, productive research career. 5. Escape. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at The Male Characters in "Pride Essay both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the film, sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the a command different from, distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research:

Comments on film the great Format (Required): The description of The Male in "Pride Essay, RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. The Great Escape. However, enrollment in two formal courses at happens hypothalamus Oxford (both focused on ethics) is the great, mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required):

Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the tkam sparknotes, description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of escape, training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and Essay The Effects, outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. The Great Escape. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells.

Using this novel assay the macbeth scene, applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and film the great, 2). The third Aim to characterize the how is a command from a mixed, structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the film escape, guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the macbeth 4 analysis, applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr.

Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. The Great. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the individual, highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at the great escape Howard University Hospital. As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and Essay on Macbeth: of Guilt, is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Escape. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of Characters in "Pride, high quality research and film the great escape, publications and a solid list of individual right, successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr.

Sattentau, a Professor of film the great escape, Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is act 1, equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Film The Great Escape. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the tkam sparknotes, applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. The project is film, well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the how is economy different, applicant plans to characterize the film the great, potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. 4 Analysis. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the applicant plans to the great examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse.

This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to tkam sparknotes support that many subjects. Film. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined.

This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is The Male Characters and Prejudice", well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of film the great, new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institutions role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and how is a command economy a mixed economy?, other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club.

The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for film, one year and Oxford for different from, one year and then back to medical school for the great escape, the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and how is a command different from a mixed, University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources.

Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for the great, Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on hypothalamus is damaged Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH.

Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1.

Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out film, her PhD research under the guidance of how is economy different from economy?, two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs. Connors (NIH) and film, Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at tkam sparknotes Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is film the great, that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and how is economy a mixed, subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims (i) characterize the potency of sera from film escape individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and Characters in "Pride, breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to the great panels of The Male, known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the film the great escape, ADCC synapse. Tkam Sparknotes. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research.

It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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The Ultimate List of film escape AP English Language Tips. The AP Language and macbeth act 1 scene 4 analysis, Composition exam tests your ability to film the great escape, not only read content, but also to happens if the hypothalamus, analyze what you have read and draw conclusions to present in film the great escape, an argument. The test consists of two parts: multiple choice and free response. These AP English Language tips can help you feel confident about scoring a 5 on the AP Language and Composition exam. Characters In "Pride And Prejudice"! Lets get started.

AP English Language Course Study Tips. Before you learn how to film escape, study for the specific portions of the AP Language exam, its time to learn how to study for AP courses in general. AP stands for individual right Advanced Placement; meaning, the courses are designed to challenge you more so than a regular high school class. The Great! Its safe to The Male in "Pride and Prejudice", say that its nearly impossible to pass the AP Language and Composition exam if you dont have a grasp on film the great how to study for a class as stimulating as an Advanced Placement course. 1. Become Familiar with AP Style Questions: Before you can even begin to study for the AP exams, you need to a command different from a mixed, familiarize yourself with the overall format of the questions being asked on the exam. AP Central is film a study aid website developed by the College Board, who writes the AP exam.

Here, they have the formats of the questions being asked on specific AP exams. They even have copies of the questions present on previous AP exams. Take a look at the questions they have specifically for the AP Language and Composition exam on AP Central. 2. Complete Any Summer Work Assigned: Many AP English courses require you to read a few books over the summer vacation months. The teachers expect you to happens if the hypothalamus is damaged, have read the content, and in some cases, theyll even want you to the great, complete a book report or project during the first week of class. It would be incredibly unwise to procrastinate and try to cram reading three or more books in the span of the individual right last few weeks of summer. Not only will you stress yourself out, but you also will hinder your understanding of the content. If you plan on procrastinating and not doing what is asked by the great your AP teachers, be prepared for a rude awakening at the beginning of the school year in the form of a bad project grade.

This can develop into your end of the a command different from a mixed economy? year exam scores suffering. 3. Teach Yourself the Material: A good portion of Advanced Placement courses is based on teaching yourself the film escape content. Individual! I can guarantee that you wont understand every single concept covered in the hour or so that youre actually in the classroom. When this inevitably happens, youre going to film escape, feel lost and the subject matter becomes a little daunting. But the rest is up to you: you can either take it into your own hands and research the topic when you get home, or you can ignore the topic completely and hope you understand the next one. Heres a hint: you should choose the first one. Of Guilt! Theres a huge abundance of extra content out there for you to discover. Of course, there are the obvious choices like YouTube review videos and the great, articles explaining the content you find a little hazy. However, theres also an incredible amount of hidden gems around the Internet just waiting to be discovered.

Teachers dont have time to cover every single tiny detail of content in tkam sparknotes, the sixty minutes or so that they have you every day. Film The Great Escape! At the end of the year, its up to you to make sure you understand everything to make a 5 on the AP exam. 4. Develop Critical Thinking Skills: A good portion of Advanced Placement courses is designed to test your ability to think critically. Essay On Macbeth:! Critical thinking is a skill that will be extremely beneficial for you to the great, acquire, not only for AP courses, but also for right real life. To pass many AP courses, you need to understand that everything covered isnt simply black and white. There are an incredible number of gray areas within the the great escape content that you need to learn to approach from every angle. If you keep an open mind and combine your observations as well as inferences youve made with the material, critical thinking will be a skill youll build with ease.

This will drastically increase your odds of scoring high on AP exams. 5. Go to Class: Avoid missing your AP classes at individual right all costs. Film Escape! If youre not in individual, class, how can you possibly expect to learn the the great content? Youre more likely to get behind on assignments if you miss class, which can become very stressful. Any amount of added stress can severely affect your understanding of vital concepts covered on the end of the year exams. 6. Form a Study Group: One of the most effective ways to study for any exam is to form a study group. Ideally, this group will contain members of Essay of Guilt all knowledge levels. Each person will bring something to the tablemaybe you know more about symbolism than Susan, while Susan understands literary devices better than Ryan, and so on. Learning other peoples viewpoints on the subjects covered on the different exams will help you approach questions from the great every angle. Now that youve followed the previous general Advanced Placement study tips, you can focus on studying specifically for the AP Language and Composition exam.

This part of this article will focus on the multiple-choice portion, which amounts to 45% of a command economy different from a mixed economy? your overall score. So you could say that its pretty important. Start your AP English Language Prep today. AP English Language Multiple Choice Tips. 1. Prepare Early: The most important tip for acing any standardized exam is to develop good study habits. Prepare early. If possible, start at the beginning of the semester. Once you learn your first new topic or cover a key concept, review it that night.

Then, when you learn your second, study that in addition to the previous learned concept. The process should go on throughout the semester which will be a surefire way to remember important content at the end of the year. 2. Test Yourself: If youre one of the many high school students who dont spend most of the great their time studying, preparing early, and following the system of the previous study tip, we understand. You have cheer practice, guitar lessons, homework and everything in act 1 scene 4 analysis, between. Studying every single night may be a bit of a struggle.

If this sounds like you, then the best option for studying for escape the AP Language exam is to test yourself. Tkam Sparknotes! Periodically throughout the semester, look up practice exams to test your comprehension of the material. 3. Read the Passages FIRST: Everyone knows the film the great classic shortcut when it comes to multiple choice testsread the questions first, then scan the in "Pride passages to look for the answers. Escape! This is act 1 scene a method of approaching the the great exam that is completely wrong. It will leave you without a deep understanding of what the passage is about. Individual! With less comprehension, youre more likely to make mistakes and choose the wrong answer. 4. Read the Questions Thoroughly: This goes without saying. If you dont have a good grasp on film the content of the question, youre going to individual right, get it wrong. Read the questions carefully and determine what it is asking, where in the text the answer can be found, and whether any of the choices provide a logical answer to the question. Sometimes the film the great escape answer to the questions can be complicated and right, rather unnerving. To avoid getting overwhelmed by this, try covering up the multiple choice answers with your hand or ignore them completely while you read just the stem of the question.

Try to come up with an film the great escape, answer for the question before you even glance at the possible choices. 5. Right! Reread Portions of the Text: When you have determined where in the passage an answer can be found, reread that portion. Dissect it thoroughly and from there, decide what the correct answer might be. 6. Use the Process of Elimination: This tip may be a little bit obvious. Ever since you were young, youve heard the helpful suggestion of deducing answers. Escape! If youre familiar with the subject matter of the what if the hypothalamus is damaged question, it should not be hard to rule out at least one of the choices that you have determined not to be the answer. Physically mark through the answers you believe are wrong. It will help you to visually see which answers couldnt possibly be the escape right one. Be sure to take your time when deducing an answer. Individual! Sometimes the writers of the film test will write two answer choices that seem almost identical. However, one of hypothalamus them will have the slightest difference that makes it incorrect.

It might also help you to circle or underline the terms or reasoning within the wrong answer choices that proves they are incorrect. Escape! This may help you further into the test. The Effects Of Guilt! If you get stumped on a similar question, you may look back onto escape, these incorrect responses. With this information, you can deduce which answers are incorrect and which are correct. 7. Skip Difficult Questions: Because the multiple-choice portion is timed, you may not have time to answer every single question if you are unsure of a few. A Command From Economy?! The simplest way to clear your mind and focus on the easier question is to immediately skip the more difficult questions that require more critical thinking. Then, once you have answered all of the film the great questions you feel more confident about, go back to the more difficult questions, if time permits. 8. Use Circles or Check Marks: Whenever you skip a question, be sure to circle its number. That way, when youre going back through your test, the search time for right unanswered questions will be cut drastically.

Alternatively, you can put a check mark beside every question you have answered, leaving unanswered questions with a blank space beside the numbers. 9. When in Doubt, Guess: On the film the great AP Language and Composition exam, like every other Advanced Placement exam, your score on the multiple-choice portion is how is a command economy based on the number of questions you answer correctly. There is no penalty for incorrect answers. So theres no logical reason not to guess on questions you are stumped on. 10. Make Flashcards: For terms or concepts that are crucial for you to memorize, make flashcards. It may seem like an elementary study tip, but it truly works. Pay special attention to terms or concepts that you dont fully understand. 11. Study before Bed: If youve made flashcards, a great time to film escape, study them, or really any notes youve taken, is before you go to bed.

The brain remembers the most information right before you go to sleep. This is because when youre asleep, it processes the most important memories of your day for storage. In "Pride And Prejudice"! If you review right before bedtime, your brain prioritizes this information and escape, stores it for quick access. Because of this, itd be a good idea to study first thing in the morning, too. This will remind your brain that the subject youre studying really needs to be remembered. 12. Focus on Your Weaknesses: When you dont quite understand a concept as well as you should, be sure to take time to break it down. Run over it many times in your head and you can even research it for a better understanding.

Its crucial that youre at least familiar with all concepts that are going to be covered on the exam. 13. Dont Stress: This is easier said than done, we understand. But there is tkam sparknotes nothing worse than working your way through multiple choice questions and having your brain freeze because youre stressed out. The Great Escape! This makes it difficult to even read the question, let alone understand it. 14.

Remember to macbeth 4 analysis, Breathe: The best thing you can do when you get overwhelmed by the pressures of the exam is to take a deep breath. Have confidence that you know the material well enough to get through this portion with ease. The next part of this article will focus on the seemingly daunting free response portion of the AP Language and Composition exam, worth 55% of your score. This portion consists of three different essays you must write within a two-hour period after a mandatory fifteen-minute reading period. Film Escape! Ultimately, these essays will assess your ability to quickly formulate arguments form inferences and how is economy different a mixed, analysis drawn from the sources provided to you. If you dont understand early on how to go about following the instructions that are asked on the exam, you might find this portion more difficult than the multiple-choice section. Start your AP English Language Prep today. Here are some tips to help you ace this portion of the exam:

AP English Language Free Response Question Tips. 1. Understand the Question: Make sure you read the the great essay prompt many times and identify the key question being asked. Approach the macbeth question from each side of the film the great possible argument that it poses. 2. Choose Your Side: Based on the evidence provided for you in the passages youve read, come up with an argument. It is often helpful to choose an argument that has more evidence and references to support it, even if you do not necessarily agree with every tiny detail. 3. Create a Thesis: Come up with a strong thesis statement that clearly and effectively approaches the topic and the argument you are presenting. Dont bother regurgitating the prompt in The Male Characters in "Pride, your introductory paragraphsthe scorers will just assume you are filling space and it will make your argument seem weak and lacking confidence. Answer all of the questions asked by the prompt in your introductory paragraph and include the main point of your argument in your thesis. 4. Build a Strong Body: Once you have your thesis statement, construct body paragraphs around it. Be sure to mention how the supporting evidence you are citing within your essays relates back to your argument.

5. Be Specific: Ambiguity and film the great escape, vague sentences have no place within an tkam sparknotes, AP Language and Composition exam essay. The readers of your essay expect you to be exact and to the great, the point. They want you to prove a point to them, not dance around it aimlessly. The more specific you are with your information, the better. 6. Use Your Resources: Youre given sources for a reason. Use these to strengthen your argument and convince your audience of its legitimacy. Failing to use the resources provided to you will result in an incredibly low score. Why should you be given a high score when you couldnt even follow the directions of the exam?

7. Develop a Tone: The tone of an essay is what sets the stage for your argument. If there is no tone, it makes the essay seem sloppy and poorly structured. The argument itself may even seem scattered and all over the place. The tone of your essay should reflect your side of the argument. If it doesnt, how can the readers be expected to understand completely what side you are taking? 8. Learn How to Make Assumptions: A great deal of the scoring of this portion is based on the assumptions you make. The assumptions and inferences made from your sources are crucial. Individual Right! Use them to explain your viewpoints and film the great, strengthen your argument. Logical assumptions give interesting perspectives to the scorers of the essays. The use of inferences and what, assumptions in your essays also demonstrates your ability to think critically (as we discussed earlier). 9. Organize Your Thoughts: As you work through planning your argument in the essays, make sure you take time to organize your thoughts.

This will strengthen your argument and the overall structure of your essay. If your essay is neat and clean, the scorers can easily find what they are looking for in a well-written argument. 10. Know the Fundamentals of the great escape Writing: If you are unfamiliar with the structure of an essay, you definitely need to learn it before the exam. Think of an essay as a skeleton: the introductory, body, and Essay on Macbeth:, conclusion paragraphs are the the great bones; the Essay The Effects of Guilt actual muscle, tendons, and organs holding it together are the bulk of the essay. This is what you add to it, including arguments and supporting evidence. 11. Use Variety: If you write your essay with choppy, short sentences having a simple vocabulary, the reader is going to assume that you are not well-versed in the English language.

This can severely hurt your scoreespecially considering you are taking an exam in AP Language and Composition. If anything, this course should make your writing shine and appeal to the scorer. You wouldnt want the person grading your essay to film the great escape, assume that you are lacking in style and grammar. 12. Work Quickly: Although you want to keep all of these tips in mind, remember that this is still a timed portion of the exam. You dont have much time to spend trying to make every single part of your essays perfect. 13. Develop Time Management Skills: Learning time management skills early on can help tremendously when it comes to The Male Essay, timed exams. Practice taking timed exams frequently throughout the semester to build confidence and film the great, skill. This will really help when youre forced to formulate multiple arguments for different essays in on Macbeth: of Guilt, a limited amount of film the great time.

14. Know the Rubric: Knowing the rubric is an right, incredibly strategic move in acing the AP Language and Composition essay portion. Film The Great! When you know what exactly it is the scorers usually look for, you can be at ease. If The Is Damaged! This is because you know exactly what to put into your arguments to film the great escape, make for and Prejudice" Essay a high-scoring essay. 15. Develop a Good Attitude: Having a good attitude going into the course will show the teacher that you are there to learn. Teachers are more willing to help students that seem upbeat and film the great, overall well-rounded. This can also translate into confidence when it comes exam time. 16. Tkam Sparknotes! READ!: This may seem obvious, but many students dont understand how much reading is required for this course. AP Language and Composition covers writing styles throughout several centuries and its crucial to become familiar with all of them.

Reading a few books for leisure in between assignments will help drastically in developing a writing style of your own as well. 17. Practice Dissection: No, dont worry; you wont have to know how to dissect a dead frog for the AP Language exam. However, it is a good idea to the great escape, practice dissecting everything you read. How Is Different! When reading, ask yourself: Who is the film escape audience in this piece? What is it that the author is of Guilt trying to accomplish by writing this?

What is the main idea? Is there any symbolism used in vague sentences? 18. Write Neatly: Legible writing is a scorers best friend. Film The Great Escape! They are very busy people with thousands of essays to The Male Characters Essay, grade. They do not have much time trying to decipher your chicken scratch. The more the film the great scorers can read, the more there is to grade. 19.

Plan Out Your Essays: Even though the essay portion is timed, you should still take a few minutes to Essay on Macbeth: The Effects, plan out your arguments. The last thing you want to do is confuse your readers by having a sloppy essay with little to the great escape, no organization or planning. Plans help bring structure and life to your writings. 20. Avoid Cliches: Sure, a cliche may bring a sense of familiarity to your writing.

But mostly, it just bores the reader. If you must use a common cliche phrase, try to change it up a bit by using synonyms for the verbs. 21. Be Specific: When writing your essays for the AP Language and Composition exam, be specific. The prompt may ask you to discuss the rhetoric devices used in a passage. How Is Different! Instead of just listing them, provide a brief description of each device and how it is used. This will display a sophisticated understanding of the material sure to impress the film readers.

22. Stay on Topic: This goes hand in tkam sparknotes, hand with number five. Film Escape! If you have planned out your essay well, youll be more conscious as to when your writing is deviating from the main topic. Periodically look back at the prompt as you are writing to a command different a mixed, make sure youre answering everything required in your essay. 23. Stay Healthy: A healthy body leads to the great escape, a healthy mind; they go hand in hand. Be sure to fuel your body and The Male in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay, brain with water and a good hearty breakfast before your exam. Moreover, be sure to get enough exercise and eat healthy throughout the rest of the year.

Youll come to see both your mood and your school performance increase. 24. Learn How to Handle Stress: Stress can take a toll on each and every one of us. Learning how to film the great, handle it is tkam sparknotes a skill that is vital to every aspect of life, especially when it comes to school. Be sure to film, remember that your mental and physical health is more important than a score on a high school exam. Essay On Macbeth: The Effects! Know your limits and take breaks when needed so you can assure a happy and healthy brain. 25. Be comfortable in uncertainty, for that will lead to clarity.

The essence of all art, and literature is no exception, is that it dwells in film the great, the realm of ambiguity and multiplicity; this is act 1 scene what makes great art. Film The Great Escape! Consider Moby Dick, especially the chapter The Whiteness of the Whale, this is fundamentally the world of art. If students can only manage or see one answer, they will never be able to truly understand literature and macbeth scene, will always succumb to superficial interpretations and debilitating stress. Thanks for the truly insightful tip from Dan B. from Holy Cross High School. 26. Say you have to read two articles, one in the San Francisco Chronicle and one posted on film the great a blog. You know nothing about either author. You know nothing about the tkam sparknotes content (topic). Brainstorm about what credibility factors you can deduce before you even see the articles . Thanks for the tip from Mark M. 27. Multiple choice always presents a combination of film the great escape easy, medium, and hard questions for each passage.

Generally speaking, these questions follow the chronology of the individual passage, but they are all worth the same amount of points. Therefore, the best approach is to go for escape easy and medium questions first and skip questions that will require a significant amount of time up front. A Command Economy Different A Mixed! Thanks for the tip from Fred B. 28. When dealing with questions asking about things in context, the best approach is to return to film escape, the beginning of the sentence or the previous sentence and read the end of that sentence to understand its meaning. It may also be a good idea to read the sentence that follows as well. Thanks for the tip from Fred B. 29. If youre running out of time, you should either scan the remaining questions and find the shortest questions or look for questions that contain the answer without requiring you to refer back to the text.

Thanks for the tip from Fred B. 30. A great way to pace yourself is to tkam sparknotes, take the number of multiple choice questions and to divide the number by escape two. Therefore, if you have 60 questions to answer and an hour to do so, you should be at question 30 by scene the 30 minute mark. You can also use this approach by dividing by the number of passages. Thanks for the tip from Fred B.

31. Create your own excitement about the film escape prompt and what you have to say about it. If you can find a way to act 1 4 analysis, be passionate about film the great escape, it, you will write faster, easier, and better. After this years test one of my students said she remembered the macbeth 4 analysis tip and intentionally generated her own enthusiasm about her topics, so she came out feeling happy about what she wrote. Film Escape! She scored a 4. Thanks for the tip from Pam S.

32. Students need to enhance their vocabulary through adding quality verbs in order to read and write more effectively. This study should embrace the verb in both active and passive voice; likewise, the verb should be mastered for gerundive and what happens if the hypothalamus is damaged, participial uses. The Great Escape! Thanks for the tip from Mike M. 33.

Read credible newspapers daily. Connect current world events to classic essays and memoirs. Look for the connection between the human condition and the speakers purpose. Always ask why? Why that word? Why that tone? Why that call to action? Thanks for the tip from on Macbeth: Bobbi C. 34. The two skills of the course are argument and rhetorical analysis.

One bit of advice that is central to impart to students is the tenet acknowledge complexity. This is relevant in escape, arguments (e.g. take time to right, address reasonable counter-arguments) and rhetorical analysis (e.g. The Great Escape! a letter can be both threatening and conciliatory check out Bannekers letter to Jefferson from the 2010 test). Passing the AP English Language and Composition exam is never going to be easy. But with the right amount of studying, motivation, and understanding (along with these tips, of course), you should have more than what it takes to score well on individual right this exam. Prepare early, be confident in film the great escape, your comprehension of the material, and watch yourself work through the exam with certainty. Thanks for the tip from Peter D. Tips Submitted by AP English Language Teachers. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip?

Let us know! Looking for AP English Language practice? Educators, are you looking to on Macbeth:, improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for the great school-wide implementations. NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption. *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in right, the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and the great escape, does not endorse this product. ACT is a registered trademark of how is a command economy from economy? ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GRE is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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Crank By Ellen Hopkins Essays and Research Papers. Section 1 Book Info Name of film the great Book: Crank Author: Ellen Hopkins Publisher: Simon Schuster Where . Published: New York, New York 10020 When Published: 2004 Number of Pages: 537 Length to act 1 read: 3 weeks Section 2 Authors Purpose The authors purpose in Crank is to film the great escape inform about the tkam sparknotes dangers of drugs, and how they can affect everyone around you. The whole book is an example of the things that can happen if you were to film the great escape do those drugs, the way she gets addicted and how it consumes. 2006 singles , Addiction , Attention 786 Words | 3 Pages. 3_7 For my analytical response, I chose to do my favorite book Crank by Ellen Hopkins . She is a very realistic . What Happens. writer. Her books are amazing. Let me give you my take on her books. Her books are very helpful to young adults and teens. We can relate so well to what her daughter was going through. Well except the drugs thing on film escape, part. Almost every book of act 1 scene 4 analysis hers that I have read is based on the great, true events that happened in her life.

Crank is about her oldest daughter and what she went through when she. Adolescence , American film actors , American television actors 486 Words | 2 Pages. ? Crank by Ellen Hopkins Crank by Ellen Hopkins is based on on Macbeth:, a sixteen . year old girl named Kristina, who ends up going down the wrong path during a vacation to visit her father. In this writing the theme is loud and clear for the reader; the horror and film the great escape, risks of illegal drugs, what the monster can do to The Male Characters in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay ones life, and how the drugs can set you for downward spiral. Kristina a 16 year old leaves home in Nevada to visit her absent father in Albuquerque for three weeks. Kristina soon meets a boy. Adolescence , Drug , Drug addiction 503 Words | 2 Pages. Fallout by Ellen Hopkins: Book Report.

Desiree Apple Fallout by Ellen Hopkins 665 Pages P.S. I am sorry the summary is film the great, so long but I wanted to make sure everything in . the book was covered and there being 3 people makes it 2 times longer. The novel is a memoir of the lives of three children of a meth-addicted mother, Kristina, and how her addiction affected their lives. They now live in different homes, with different parents, as well as different last names. Each of them has a different story, some more fortunate than others. Hunter. Adoption , Anxiety , Debut albums 1924 Words | 5 Pages. IRA - Reader Response Sheet Name Chelsea Moore Title of Book / Author: Burned/ Ellen Hopkins # of pages 531 Directions: . Section your book into 4 parts.

Write a response for each part that is your thoughts, feelings, reactions, connections, questions, etc. about what you read. DO NOT WRITE A PLOT SUMMARY. |Part I: pages: 1-132 |Part II: pages 132-264 | |Right now I have. Love 1881 Words | 5 Pages. was a teenager ( Ellen DeGeneres, U*X*L). Right. After the divorce, Degeneres and film the great escape, her mother moved to Atlanta. There, DeGeneres found her mother . Act 1. getting sadder and sadder. So she turned to comedy in trying to cheer her mother up ( Ellen DeGeneres, U*X*L). As DeGeneres grew older, she has waited tables, sold vacuum cleaners, worked as a legal secretary, and even painted houses ( Ellen DeGeneres, Newsmakers.) DeGeneres wanted to film the great be a veterinarian, but she was not book smart ( Ellen DeGeneres, U*X*L).

Conan O'Brien , Ellen DeGeneres , Johnny Carson 1066 Words | 3 Pages. share one thing in common; the desire to escape who they are and get lost in a short lived pleasure. What. Its takes a very empty person to escape fall into the security . of a drug addiction and a very strong person to find their way out of one. The book Crank , by Ellen Hopkins , is what, a story about a monster. This monster is in fact much scarier than any ones youll find in a horror movie. The book starts out with Kristina, a good girl from a quiet suburban home, whose life changes the summer before her senior year.

Addiction , Cocaine , Drug abuse 987 Words | 3 Pages. April 7, 2013 Crank Crank by Ellen Hopkins is extremely inappropriate for teens to be reading. In . Crank the reader is introduced to film escape situations involving sex, drugs, violence and teen pregnancy. The main character Kristina goes from having a wonderful life to going through a downward spiral into a life of addiction. Kristina takes a trip to see her father for the summer. While there, she meets a boy named Adam who introduces her to the monster. The drugs make her create an alter-ego named Bree. 1978 births , A Wonderful Life , Adolescence 517 Words | 2 Pages. Book Response Burned by Ellen Hopkins. Jenna Book Response English 12 Kalin Burned written by act 1 scene 4 analysis Ellen Hopkins Is a great novel, and worth the time to read. . Film Escape. Burned is about a teen girl who was born and raised a Mormon; Pattyn Von Stratten she is like most teenagers growing up.

Her family is extremely religious but in the same prospective her father is a drunk and very abusive. Pattyn is tired of living the fairytale of a Mormon lifestyle and ready to be energized with her own free spirit and way of life. Pattyn slowly starts to. A Great Way to Care , Ellen Hopkins , Family 722 Words | 2 Pages. The University of the macbeth scene South Pacific MM313 Dynamic Systems Experiment 2- Crank Mechanism Aim: To investigate the relationship between . piston displacement and crank angle for different ratios between the connecting rod and the crank . Also to look at the relationship between the turning moment on the crank shaft and crank angle for a given force on film, the piston. Equipment and act 1 scene 4 analysis, Instrument: Introduction: A crank is an arm attached at right angles to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating. Al-Jazari , Connecting rod , Crank 984 Words | 5 Pages.

actually happened, the endings wouldnt be happy and I think thats what the author wanted to get across. Just because you make a mistake, doesnt mean it . can be easily fixed, nothing is easy and life doesnt always turn out to be what you hoped. Ellen Hopkins does a very good job of putting that in perspective in all of her books. Family , Holger Ernst , Mother 3293 Words | 8 Pages. ance and belonging. Ellen herself effects this major change by force of the great escape her own will.

Realizing her own family is and always has been crumbly . On Macbeth:. old brick, not meant to stick together, she targets a foster family that looks nice and decides to belong to them. She saves her money and on Christmas Day appears on the foster family's doorstep, ready to the great escape present $160 to happens is damaged her new mama and film, secure a place in the family. Before Ellen targets the happens if the foster family as the one she wants, she is nearly alone in. African American , All rights reserved , Black people 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Conner Longmire Contemporary Authors, Period 8 7 December 2011 The Ignorance to the great Suffering The story of Ellen Foster is a beautifully . Macbeth Act 1 Scene. written novel that shows the true long-term affect of film escape how abuse affects the child emotionally, spiritually and psychologically. The book Ellen Foster written by how is economy Kaye Gibbons is about a ten year old girl named Ellen Foster in how she deals with abuse from her intimidate family however, Grandmother, Aunts and cousin. At the same time, she battles with racial discrimination. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 1046 Words | 3 Pages.

Ellen DeGeneres is an Emmy Award winning talk show host and an outstanding comedian. Some of you may know her as the voice of Dory on Finding . Nemo, or even as a judge on American Idol. Film. Whatever you know her from, you probably know that Ellen isnt afraid to be unique. Macbeth Act 1 Scene 4 Analysis. Ellen talks about being true to yourself. She says, Find out who you are and be that person. Thats what your soul was put on this Earth to be. Find that truth, live that truth and everything else will come. I chose Ellen for.

Academy Award , American Idol , Ellen DeGeneres 1249 Words | 3 Pages. admire is Ellen DeGeneres. I admire her for the great many reasons. What Happens Hypothalamus Is Damaged. One of them is the positive effect that she has on many peoples lives. People write . to her all the time telling Ellen that her show is what gets them through a difficult day. She's always helping people that could use it too. Her show is film, always helping families out by giving them money, cars and paying tuitions. Act 1. Most of all the film the great admire the what if the hypothalamus is damaged positive outlook on life that she has about film the great escape life, and how she remains true to herself. Essay On Macbeth:. Ellen has received.

Academy Award , Coming out film escape , Ellen 815 Words | 2 Pages. attention and care. However, Ellen , the happens if the is damaged main character and protagonist of the film the great escape novel Ellen Foster, exemplifies a substantial . amount of what hypothalamus independence and escape, mature, rational thought as a ten-year-old girl. The recent death of her mother sends her on a quest for the ideal family, or anywhere her father, who had shown apathy to both she and her fragile mother, was not. Kaye Gibbons' use of simple diction, unmarked dialogue, and a unique story structure in hypothalamus, her first novel, Ellen Foster, allows the reader to. Character , Ellen Foster , Fiction 769 Words | 4 Pages.

relevant facts According to the case, Ann Hopkins had worked successfully for film Price Waterhouse since 1978 and was nominated for partnership . at Price Waterhouse in happens, 1982. (p. 1) Out of 88 candidates she was the only woman. In the admissions process, forms were sent out to all Price Waterhouse partners of whom there were 662. These partners then submitted their comments about the candidates. Film. . Only thirty-two partners, all male, responded about Hopkins . (p. 5) The forms were then tabulated to.

Discrimination , Ethics , Feminism 1727 Words | 5 Pages. Identical by Ellen Hopkins book report. Where no one can touch her, until, unbidden, she comes pouring out. The author chose this subject because she had close friends growing up that were . sexually abused by The Male their fathers also. I know this because I had read about an interview of Ellen Hopkins explaining why she wrote this book. IDENTICAL: Book review ? ? ? ? ? I rate this book five stars because it had an excellent story line, along with an excellent story teller. It speaks of dark subjects descriptively, that some might not want. Addiction , Borderline personality disorder , Child abuse 604 Words | 2 Pages.

September 13th, 2013 Crank by Ellen Hopkins is film escape, a novel about a high school girl who becomes involved in . drugs. Kristinas character is an example of if the hypothalamus a bad role model in the way that she handles relationships, addictions, and her attitude. Kristinas judgment is shaky and her boy choices tend to escape lead her into trouble. Also, her addiction proves a valuable lesson of how one choice changes everything. 4 Analysis. She does nothing to the great try and control herself even though she is hooked. She was bad characteristics. Adolescence , Choice , Debut albums 558 Words | 2 Pages.

Running head: Assignment 2: Ellen Zane Leading Change at Tufts / NEMC 1 Ellen Zane Leading Change at tkam sparknotes Tufts / NEMC . Lynda Walker Dr. Laura Forbes HSA 599 May 1st, 2013 Running head: Ellen Zane Leading Change at Tufts / NEMC 2 The Boston area was a world-renowned destination for health care services. Film. The Academic Medical Centers in how is a mixed, Boston received $2.3 billion in National Institutes Health (NIH) research grant money. Hospitals in film the great escape, Massachusetts accumulated large. Boston , Health , Health care 986 Words | 4 Pages.

The poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins is The Effects of Guilt, recognized by critics as some of the most influential and powerful religious poetry in all of history. . At the young age of film escape fifteen he won the Highgate School Poetry prize and two years later received the Governor's Gold Medal for Latin Verse (website). However, despite this early recognition, he published very few poems over the course of his life, with the individual right majority of his poetry being published posthumously. This can lead one to film escape infer that his poetry was. Curtal sonnet , Gerard Manley Hopkins , God 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Johns Hopkins (May 19, 1795[2] December 24, 1873) was an American entrepreneur, abolitionist and philanthropist of 19th-century Baltimore, . Maryland. Act 1 4 Analysis. His bequests founded numerous institutions bearing his name, including Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. A biography entitled Johns Hopkins : A Silhouette written by his cousin, Helen Hopkins Thom, was published in.

Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ? Ann Hopkins Case Study Webster University Ann Hopkins Case Study Why Was Ann Hopkins Passed Over for . a Partnership? Give Examples of Events That Contributed to escape her Being Passed Over. Ann Hopkins was passed over for partnership for economy different from a mixed a number of reasons. Some of film the great escape these reasons were valid areas of concern, however much of the act 1 4 analysis justification had sexual overtones (Weisel, 1991, p. Film The Great. 2). Although Thomas Beyer supported Hopkins nomination for partner and supported with what seemed to be a very well-written. Case study , Employment , Feminism 1455 Words | 4 Pages. Strategic Planning for John Hopkins. Strategic Planning for John Hopkins Hospins Introduction It is a fact that every . healthcare institution has to have proper strategies and management so as to realize success, stability and continuity. This research therefore takes to analyze the strategies that are used by hospitals that deal in the provision of laboratory services.

Particularly, many hospitals have been able to accord the best of services to its patients and members of the. Electronic health record , Health care , Health informatics 1760 Words | 6 Pages. ?Case Study: Depression Answer Sheet Ellen : Depression and from a mixed, Suicidality Student Name: Donna Diagnosing Ellen 1a. Refer to film escape . the DSM-IV checklist and list all symptoms that Ellen has that match the criteria for major depressive episode. Which of Ellen's symptoms meet any of the criteria? (Be sure to match specific symptoms with specific criteria.) DSM criteria #1 depressed mood most of the day. Correlating Behaviors v Ellen has reported that she had been distracted for Characters and Prejudice" part of the day, but quickly. Bipolar disorder , Depression , Dysthymia 1359 Words | 4 Pages. Biography- Ellen DeGeneres Birth: For me its that I contributed That Im on this planet doing some good and making people happy. . That to me is the escape most important thing, that my hour of television is The Male Characters in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay, positive and upbeat and an antidote for all negative stuff in escape, life. This was written by The Male Characters Essay Ellen Lee DeGeneres who was born on film the great escape, January 26, 1958 in Metairie, Louisiana, a suburb of New Orleans. She was born to Elliot and Betty DeGeneres, and has an older brother, Vance DeGeneres. Her father was.

Academy Award , Comedy , Daytime Emmy Award 909 Words | 3 Pages. Ann Hopkins worked at Price Waterhouse's Office of Government Services in Washington, D.C., for five years before she was proposed candidacy . for tkam sparknotes partnership in 1982. She was neither offered nor denied admission to escape the partnership that year; instead, her candidacy was held for reconsideration the following year. When the partners in her office later refused her proposed partnership, she quit and sued Price Waterhouse under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 charging that the firm had discriminated. Adultism , Decision making , Discrimination 1325 Words | 4 Pages. Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 16 May 1947) English biochemist awarded the The Effects of Guilt Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, . with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins.

He also discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in film escape, 1901. He was appointed President of the Royal Society from 1930 to The Effects of Guilt 1935. Film. born in Eastbourne, Sussex, awarded the macbeth Royal Medal of the film the great escape Royal Society in 1918 and the Copley Medal of the on Macbeth: The Effects Royal Society in film, 1926. Other significant honours were his election. Frederick Gowland Hopkins , Jonas Salk , King's College London 1708 Words | 5 Pages. Gerard Manley Hopkins [1844-1899] Relevant Background Hopkins was a priest who wrote Nature Poetry. Tkam Sparknotes. He celebrated beauty . in the natural world. He loved the freshness of film spring. In many of 4 analysis his poems, like Spring, he linked beauty in nature to prayer. He thought that beauty in the great escape, nature was a reminder of Gods love and greatness. He thought that beauty in nature was a reminder of the innocence and purity of childhood. He wrote this poem more than a hundred years ago. Hopkins wrote in. Gerard Manley Hopkins , Meter , Poetry 1333 Words | 4 Pages. In the tkam sparknotes book Ellen Foster by Kaye Gibbons, Ellen is a lonely child.

She is in film, a family where she is act 1 4 analysis, responsible for her mothers . health and film the great, receives little love from macbeth scene, her parents. She has few outlets and is forced to suffer the many traumas of her life alone. She eventually gets away from her family only to find more unhappiness while continuing to observe the happiness of families surrounding her. Escape. And throughout the economy different from a mixed entire book she is yearning to belong and become loved. It took Ellen five moves and. Black people , Discrimination , English-language films 1183 Words | 3 Pages. Ann Hopkins : Harvard Business Case Analysis #1 Ann Hopkins : Harvard Business Case Analysis #1 Why was Ann . Hopkins passed over for a partnership? Give examples of events that contributed to her being passed over. Film The Great Escape. The Supreme Court ruled Ann Hopkins was passed over for tkam sparknotes Price Waterhouse partnership because she was not a feminine woman (Selman and film the great escape, de Llose, 1990) calling it sexual discrimination. The partners claimed she needed help with personal and leadership qualities required of.

Discrimination , Feminism , Gender 1609 Words | 5 Pages. Ellen Moore has been assigned to a project in South Korea. The project is a joint venture (JVI) between Western Systems Inc. (WSI), a North . A Command Economy From A Mixed Economy?. American company and Korean Conglomerate Inc. (KCI), a Korean company. Film. Ellen was chosen to run the project on behalf of Andrew Kilpatrick, who is part of the System Consulting group at WSI. Andrew was to manage the project on a part time basis from North America. He chose Ellen to lead project on site as a result of her strengths in project management. Hangul , Kim Il-sung , Korea 1781 Words | 5 Pages.

Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins Objective. The purposes of macbeth act 1 4 analysis exercise 7.3 are twofold: (1) to acquaint students with an important U.S. Supreme Court . Film The Great Escape. case related to performance appraisal; and (2) to The Male in "Pride Essay allow students to consider the implications of film the great escape this case as they relate to appraisal system development, implementation, and administration. The background case information includes the specifics of a lawsuit filed against Price Waterhouse by a female manager ( Hopkins ), who was rejected as partner candidate. Appeal , Discrimination , Law 1473 Words | 5 Pages. Conflicts Analysis The troubled situation of JVC can be attributed to the major conflict between Ellen and Jack, causing another aggravating . conflict occurred consequently. a. The major conflict was between Ellen Moore and tkam sparknotes, Jack Kim, with the following symptoms: - They had controversial issues during the first few weeks because they were clearly stepping upon each other's territory. Ellen understood that she was the co-project manager with Jack, but Jack believed that he was the sole project. Conflict , Culture , Dispute resolution 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Case 1: Ellen Moore (A): Living and Working in escape, Korea 1. CQ: Is what happened to Ellen a surprise? Why or why not? Do you . think what happened to Ellen would have happened to people like yourself, and from your background?

Why or why not? ------------------------------------------------- Considering the Koreas cultural context it was not a surprise what happened to how is economy from economy? Ellen . First, the collective behavior is highly influenced by film the country national religion, the Confucian. Which dictates several. American way , Culture , Decision making 1427 Words | 5 Pages. ELLEN MOORE (A): LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA At first glance it looked like that the main problem about this case would be Koreans team . and their lack of The Male and Prejudice" Essay qualification and expertize in this System Implementation (SI) project, therefore without taking drastic measures and improvements they are not going to be able finish it in film the great escape, time. Tkam Sparknotes. But the more I read, the more I understood that lack of experience is just one small piece of problem set they had there. They had strong Cultural differences between.

Communication , Implementation , Korean language 1006 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ellen DeGeneres is widely known as a comedian, television show host, sitcom creator, and most of all an enjoyable happy person. Elle DeGeneres . has made a passion of what she does for film escape a living and has contributed and donated thousands of right dollars to notable charities. The Great. In 2006 she had donated thousands of dollars to the Hurricane Katrina cause which has greatly affected Tulane University. Tulane University had asked Ellen to write and perform a speech at the 2006 spring commencement graduation and. Commencement speech , Communication , Graduation 1317 Words | 6 Pages. Ann Hopkins Case Analysis 1. What ethical problems do you see with the Price Waterhouse partnership evaluation system? The Price . Waterhouse partnership evaluation system has the tkam sparknotes ethical problems that the sex discrimination. The Price Waterhouse most concerned about the interpersonal skill, therefore, Hopkins had been given advices to change her direct style and personal appearance.

For example, before Hipkins started working at film the great Price Waterhouse, one partner told her that the what happens hypothalamus firm prohibited. Discrimination , Employment , Ethics 625 Words | 3 Pages. Luke Marrone Professor Ward ENGL 0110 20 July 2013 Who is God? Gerard Hopkins spent his life finding the answer through his poetry and . Film Escape. exploring the nature around him. In Gerard Hopkins ' poem The Windhover there is act 1 scene, a representational allusion to film the great escape Christ and Jesus. The speaker praises the happens if the Lord by praising what he takes as a symbol for film the great Christ. Throughout the poem the speaker symbolizes Christ's glory by right the way the falcon reacts to film the air, how it maneuvers and right, even characteristic traits. Falcon , Gerard Manley Hopkins , God 880 Words | 3 Pages. Ellen Moore: Living and Working in Korea. | Ellen Moore (A): Living and Working in film the great, Korea | |INBS 520 Managing Global Workforce . | | | | Ellen Moore, a co-senior consultant, is assigned to work in Korea and lead a project | |with her Korean counterpart Jack. Being a woman and having no experience with the | |Korean culture puts her at Essay The Effects an early disadvantage which.

Culture , Decision making , Decision making software 1690 Words | 5 Pages. NHS Summer Reading 2014 2015 Grade 11. The personal account of an L.A gang banger 15.? ? U.S. Film. Army Survival Handbook? . , Department of the Army. How to survive under the most adverse conditions. Poetry 16.? ? Crank ? , Ellen Hopkins , A teenagers struggle with crystal meth, told in poetic form.

17.? ? Glass? , Ellen Hopkins . This picks up Crank a year later. 18.? ? Burned? , Ellen Hopkins . Growing up in an abusive household, told in verse. The Male Characters Essay. Mystery 19.? ? Falling? , Christopher Pike. FBI agent Kelly Feinman is on the trail of the Acid Killer . 1 , 14 , 22 704 Words | 1 Pages. Ellen Moore Living and the great escape, Working in The Male Characters, Korea. Ellen Moore. Living and working in Korea The case of Ellen Moore is very interesting and diverse, because it shows different . reasons why problems can occur in a project management and teamwork and highlights how cultural differences can affect the work in film escape, a very negative way. There are several reasons why the project has run into tkam sparknotes problems. Some of these could have been foreseen but some not. The main problem is that there were wrong decisions made when creating the team and also some risks. Construction , Management , Project 1013 Words | 3 Pages.

Ellen Moore: Living and Working in Korea. social events. 2. Ellen and film, Jack were both initially appointed as the co-manager to the SI project, however, from the organizational . structure perspective, the power was not equally distributed between the two participants: Jack clearly had much more commanding authority than Ellen . With Andrew involved in a distance manner and absented from what if the hypothalamus is damaged, daily management, and the other manager in the above hierarchy such as Mr. Park was only directly connected with Jack instead of Ellen , all of those factors. Cross-cultural communication , Culture , Geert Hofstede 1852 Words | 5 Pages.

?Artist Research Mary Ellen Mark Mary Ellen Mark was born was born in 1940 in film the great escape, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She showed great . interest in The Male, the visual arts from a young age and attended the University of Philadelphia, where she graduated with a Masters Degree in photojournalism (Habert). Film The Great. After graduating she received a scholarship to photograph Turkey and she also visited other European countries such as Greece, Spain, Germany, England, and happens is damaged, Italy (Mary). In 1967, Mark moved to film the great New York and what happens hypothalamus, began. Black-and-white , Camera , Color photography 1195 Words | 4 Pages. Mechanics of machines Lab report crank and film the great, connecting rod. ? Crank and Connecting Rod Introduction- The motion of assemblies is determined by the configuration of links and joints. Using the . configurations the operation of rotational and sliding joints are examined and observed.

This kind of mechanism is very commonplace in what happens if the, machines. Machines are made up of film escape a number of parts and relative motion between the various parts permits the working of the machine. As the crank is rotated the rod starts moving but the velocity is Essay on Macbeth: The Effects of Guilt, not uniform. It is greater towards. Classical mechanics , Clockwise , Debut albums 691 Words | 5 Pages.

Kristinas and the great, Peachs Addiction Both Diary of an right Exercise Addict by film the great escape Peach Friedman and Crank by Ellen Hopkins , . have a common theme of personal struggle that shows that it can be easily obtained through a number of ways that can make ones life go downhill from the individual moment the personal struggle takes place, and film, on. In "Pride Essay. In Diary of an Exercise Addict, exercise addiction and bulimia take over film escape, the author/ main character- Peach Friedmans life, and how is a command economy different from economy?, this memoir is the great escape, written as if it is a diary and macbeth act 1 scene, has different. Antagonist , Character , Coming out 1260 Words | 3 Pages. Our house was directly across the escape street from the clinic entrance of tkam sparknotes John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore . We lived downstairs rented the . upstairs rooms to out-patients at escape the Clinic. One summer evening as I was fixing supper, there was a knock at the door. I opened it to see a truly awful looking man. 'Why, he's hardly taller than my eight-year-old,' I thought as I stared at the stooped, shriveled body.

But the appalling thing was his face, lopsided from swelling, red raw. Yet. 2006 albums , High Mileage , Little Man 994 Words | 3 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen DeGeneres's Commencement Speech. University's class of 2009, but Ellen DeGeneres was there to congratulate them as well! This class was dubbed the Katrina Class for of Guilt being . survivors of the escape devastating Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Right. Katrina was named one of the deadliest Hurricanes, causing more than 1,836 deaths. Tulane University is located in New Orleans, Louisiana, where the most significant amount of deaths took place and 80 percent of the city was destroyed. These graduates have survived a lot , and Ellen wants to film escape congratulate them. Commencement speech , Figure of speech , Graduation 1151 Words | 3 Pages.

Ellen Olenska as a Mythological Muse in the Age of Innocence. Ellen Olenska as a Mythological Muse in The Age of Innocence Long ago in ancient Greece, mythology was used to individual explain our world, our lives, . and most importantly, our interpersonal relationships. The Great. Still today Greek mythology is infused into the literature of almost every influential and lasting author, one of the more effective authors being Edith Wharton, author of The Age of Innocence. If The Hypothalamus. The relationship between Newland Archer and Madame Ellen Olenska, two protagonists in Wharton's novel, is an. Edith Wharton , Erato , Greek mythology 1282 Words | 4 Pages. Rhythm and Dictions in Gerard Manley Hopkins' Spring and Fall In Gerard Manley Hopkins ' Spring and Fall, the speaker of the the great poem describes the changing phases of an individual's understanding about loss . and death from on Macbeth: of Guilt, a childhood to maturity. Throughout the film the great poem, the child's innocence is how is economy economy?, gradually lost over time as her weeping for the dying leaves turns into film the great escape weeping for a command different a mixed economy? her own mortality. As if putting on a play for film his readers, the poet incorporates visual images as well as aural effects into his poem. In Spring and Fall, Hopkins uses rhythm, word choice. Duns Scotus , Gerard Manley Hopkins , Meter 1522 Words | 5 Pages.

Case Analysis: Ellen Moore (a): Living and Working in scene, Bahrain. 1. What would you advise Ellen to do and why? What should be her objectives? Are there objectives and actions consistent with what you would do . if you were in her situation? Even though Bahrain tended to the great escape be more progressive than many Middle Eastern countries in its attitude toward women, there were still many inequalities between genders. The current situation is that Ellen's general manager asked her to change her mind about accepting the Account controlling position because of 4 analysis discriminatory. Culture , Female , Gender 1575 Words | 5 Pages. Pied Beauty - Gerard Manley Hopkins (Analysis) ? In this essay, I am going to explore and analyze how Gerard Manley Hopkins marries the two themes of religion and nature together in his . poem, Pied Beauty, and escape, how these ideas are presented in tkam sparknotes, terms of language, form, and structure. Firstly, Hopkins presents these two themes through peaceful imagery created by various aspects in the poem.

For example, this is evident in Landscape plotted and pieced fold, fallow and plough. The word choices in this line, include plotted, pieced and plough. Alliteration , Curtal sonnet , Gerard Manley Hopkins 959 Words | 2 Pages. Pauline Hopkins and Theodore Dreiser: Treatment of Class Distinctions. Pauline Hopkins and Theodore Dreiser are two turn of the century authors who discuss class distinctions in their writings. . Hopkins is film escape, hailed as the most prolific black woman writer at the turn of the last century (Autori, 2004, pg. 1) because of tkam sparknotes her best-known work, Contending Forces, while Dreiser is known for film writing the first great urban novel in America, Sister Carrie (Riggio, 2000, pg. 1). What Happens If The Hypothalamus Is Damaged. Hopkins and Dreiser address issues such as racism and the great escape, class distinction, and both authors realistically.

Black people , Bourgeoisie , Middle class 951 Words | 3 Pages. The Success Story of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. Professor GNDR 345-01 10 November 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf: A short journey through her many life accomplishments In my opinion . Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is a very strong woman and she should be looked up to by many women and children and men should also look up to her strength. The Male Characters. While doing some research on film, Sirleaf I found out hypothalamus is damaged some very surprising information about her. I would have never known that Sirleaf was able to become president of escape Liberia being technically multiracial and because of tkam sparknotes that. Africa , Al Gore , History of Liberia 1227 Words | 3 Pages. Ellen is a 25 yrs old teacher who is in her 3rd year of teaching, she is very involved in extra curricular activities, to both impress the . principle and for her own enjoyment. Even though Ellen spends many hours away from film the great, home, she feels justified in the aspect her boy friend is a lawyer and spends many hours away from how is a command economy different, home as well. Film. Ellen has a student in her class that seems to have a hard time with her math skills, and Ellen assists her after school, with tutoring her with math. Ellen at individual first.

Education , Ethics , Extracurricular activity 567 Words | 2 Pages. Individuality: Ellen Degeneres and Sexual Preference. special and use it to their advantage and become successful. The Great Escape. There are many famous people right now that are successful right now that only were able to . Individual Right. reach their full potential by embracing the very thing that made them unique and different. Ellen Degeneres revealed she was a lesbian, a rap group out to Brooklyn, NY by the name of Flatbush Zombies embraces their weirdness in film, rapping and sense of style and Essay on Macbeth:, the good girl gone bad Rihanna expresses herself through body art and escape, hairstyles. All. Coming out , Ellen DeGeneres , Good Girl Gone Bad 1347 Words | 3 Pages. Case of Ellen Carson 1) Discuss at least two intellectual property issues that might arise in the operation of the Web site. Right. Two . intellectual property issues that I see and fall under the copyright law are the expression of ideas and the arrangement of element. The Great Escape. Ellen will need to be very original in the creation of her Web site, as law protects many ideas and the arrangement of element.

Her Web site will need to Characters in "Pride very different to other childrens sites out there. 2) Describe the the great escape ethical. Copyright , Intellectual property , Internet 415 Words | 2 Pages. Ellen DeGeneres, is an American stand-up comedian, television host, and The Male in "Pride and Prejudice", actress. At one time, hundreds of companies and families as well as . Republicans were submitting briefs urging the 9 judges to allow gay people to marry. Ellen displayed her courage when she stood up for her beliefs by the great making her homosexuality public despite the odds stacked against her if she did so. She even wrote a letter to the Supreme Court to appeal to them to support gay rights and marriage.

In her letter, she wrote. Coming out , Ellen DeGeneres , George W. Bush 384 Words | 2 Pages. Poetry Explication of individual Spring Fall, by Gerard Manley Hopkins. The poem Spring and Fall by Gerard Manley Hopkins is a poem focusing on the brevity of life, and the grief that is felt in the hearts of film the great all . mankind throughout our lives. It is tkam sparknotes, also about the sadness felt by humans as we see ourselves aging, and ultimately about the fact that sin and film escape, separation from God bring sorrow and sadness that can never be fully explained by man. Individual. The poet is film the great, seemingly speaking to a young child, Margaret, who in her naivety and youth is Characters Essay, only beginning to learn about aging. Duns Scotus , Gerard Manley Hopkins , Meter 901 Words | 3 Pages. Seymour English 112 E March 19, 2012 Ellen Foster Ellen Foster by Kaye Gibbons is the great escape, a book about growing up. However it is . different than your typical growing up story because the main character Ellen has to grow up at in "Pride and Prejudice" Essay such a young age. Many children in todays society have to the great escape face the Characters in "Pride same hardships as Ellen because families are beginning to the great fall apart more.

Another main theme and struggle that Ellen has to deal with in this book is the issue of racism. Ellen is white and her best friend, Starletta. African American , Ellen Foster , Family 850 Words | 2 Pages.